As the number of data breaches shows no signs of decreasing, the clamor to replace passwords with biometric authentication continues to grow. Biometrics are becoming widely incorporated to secure organizations from unauthorized access and the growing appeal of these security solutions is expected to create a market worth $41.8 billion by 2023, according to MarketsandMarkets.
Password reuse is the fundamental reason why data breaches continue to happen. In recent years biometrics have increasingly been lauded as a superior authentication solution to passwords. However, biometrics are not immune from problems and once you look under the hood, they bring their own set of challenges.
There are several flaws, including one with potentially fatal implications, that organizations can’t and shouldn’t ignore when exploring biometric authentication. These include:
1. Biometrics are forever
This is the Achilles heel: once a biometric is exposed/compromised, you can’t replace it. There is no way to refresh or update your fingerprint, your retina, or your face. Therefore, if a user’s biometric information is exposed, then any account using this authentication method is at risk, and there is no way to reverse the damage.
Biometrics are on display, leaving them open to potential exploitation. For example, facial information can be obtained online or through a photo of someone, unlike passwords, which remain private unless stolen. With a detailed enough representation of a biometric marker, it’s possible to spoof it and, with the rise of deep-fake technology, it will become even easier to spoof biometrics.
As biometrics are forever, it’s vital that organizations make it as difficult as possible for hackers to crack the algorithm if there is a breach. They can do it by using a strong hashing algorithm and not storing any data in plain text.
2. Device/service limitations
Despite the ubiquity of devices with biometric scanners and the number of apps that support biometric authentication, many devices can’t incorporate the technology. While biometrics are commonplace in smart devices, this is not the case with many desktop or laptop computers, which still don’t include biometric readers. Also, when it comes to signing into websites via a browser, the use of biometric authentication is currently extremely limited. Therefore, until every device and browser is compatible, relying solely on biometric authentication is not even a possibility.
The most widespread consumer-oriented biometric authentication approaches (Apple’s TouchID/FaceID and the Android equivalents) are essentially client-side only – acting as a key that unlocks a locally stored set of authentication credentials for the target application or service.
While this approach works well for this use case and has the advantage of not storing sensitive biometric signatures on servers, it precludes the possibility of having this be the only authentication mechanism (i.e., if I try to access the service from a different device, I’ll have to re-authenticate using credentials such as a username and password before I can re-enable biometric authentication, assuming the new device even supports it). To truly have a biometric-first (or biometric-only) authentication approach, you need a different model – one where the biometric signature is stored server-side.
3. Spoofing threats
Another concern with biometric authentication systems is that the scanner devices have shown they are susceptible to spoofing. Hackers have succeeded in making scanners recognize fingerprints by using casts, molds, or otherwise replicas of valid user fingerprints or faces. Although liveness detection has come a long way, it is still far from perfect. Until spoof detection becomes more sophisticated, this risk will remain.
4. Biometric changes
The possibility of changes to users’ biometrics (injury to or loss of a fingerprint for instance, or a disfiguring injury to the face) is another potential issue, especially in the case where biometric authentication is the only authentication method in use and there is no fallback available.
If a breach happens due to biometric authentication, once a cybercriminal gains access, they can then change the logins for these accounts and lock the legitimate user out of their account. This puts the onus on organizations to alert users to take immediate action to mitigate the risk. If there is a breach, both enterprises and users should immediately turn off biometrics on their devices and revert back to the default, usually passwords or passcodes.
Adopting a layered approach to authentication
Rather than searching for a magic bullet for authentication, organizations need to embrace a layered approach to security. In the physical world, you would never rely solely on one solution and in the digital world, you should adopt the same philosophy. In addition to this layered approach, organizations should focus on hardening every element to shore up their digital defenses.
The simplicity and convenience of biometrics will ensure that it continues to be an appealing option for both enterprises and users. However, relying solely on biometric authentication is a high-risk strategy due to the limitations outlined above. Instead, organizations should deploy biometrics selectively as part of the overall identity management strategy, but they must include other security elements to mitigate the potential risks. It’s clear that, despite the buzz, 2021 will not be the year that biometrics replace passwords.
Love them or loathe them, passwords will remain a fixture in our digital lives.
As we near 2021, it seems that the changes to our working life that came about in 2020 are set to remain. Businesses are transforming as companies continue to embrace remote working practices to adhere to government guidelines. What does the next year hold for organizations as they continue to adapt in the age of the Everywhere Enterprise?
We will see the rush to the cloud continue
The pandemic saw more companies than ever move to the cloud as they sought collaboration and productivity tools for employee bases working from home. We expect that surge to continue as more companies realize the importance of the cloud in 2021. Businesses are prepared to preserve these new working models in the long term, some perhaps permanently: Google urged employees to continue working from home until at least next July and Twitter stated employees can work from home forever if they prefer.
Workforces around the world need to continue using alternatives to physical face-to-face meetings and remote collaboration tools will help. Cloud-based tools are perfect for that kind of functionality, which is partly why many customers that are not in the cloud, want to be. The customers who already started the cloud migration journey are also moving more resources to public cloud infrastructure.
People will be the new perimeter
While people will eventually return to the office, they won’t do so full-time, and they won’t return in droves. This shift will close the circle on a long trend that has been building since the mid-2000s: the dissolution of the network perimeter. The network and the devices that defined its perimeter will become even less special from a cybersecurity standpoint.
Instead, people will become the new perimeter. Their identity will define what they’re allowed to access, both inside and outside the corporate network. Even when they are logged into the network, they will have minimal access to resources until they and the device they are using have been authenticated and authorized. This approach, known as zero trust networking, will pervade everything, covering not just employees, but customers, contractors, and other business partners.
User experience will be increasingly important in remote working
Happy, productive workers are even more important during a pandemic. Especially as on average, employees are working three hours longer since the pandemic started, disrupting the work-life balance. It’s up to employers to focus on the user experience and make workers’ lives as easy as possible.
When the COVID-19 lockdown began, companies coped by expanding their remote VPN usage. That got them through the immediate crisis, but it was far from ideal. On-premises VPN appliances suffered a capacity crunch as they struggled to scale, creating performance issues, and users found themselves dealing with cumbersome VPN clients and log-ins. It worked for a few months, but as employees settle in to continue working from home in 2021, IT departments must concentrate on building a better remote user experience.
Old-school remote access mechanisms will fade away
This focus on the user experience will change the way that people access computing resources. In the old model, companies used a full VPN to tunnel all traffic via the enterprise network. This introduced latency issues, especially when accessing applications in the cloud because it meant routing all traffic back through the enterprise data center.
It’s time to stop routing cloud sessions through the enterprise network. Instead, companies should allow remote workers to access them directly. That means either sanitizing traffic on the device itself or in the cloud.
User authentication improvements
Part of that new approach to authentication involves better user verification. That will come in two parts. First, it’s time to ditch the password. The cybersecurity community has advocated this for a long time, but the work-from-home trend will accelerate it. Employees accessing from mobile devices are increasingly using biometric authentication, which is more secure and convenient.
The second improvement to user verification will see people logging into applications less often. Sessions will persist for longer, based on deep agent-based device knowledge that will form a big part of the remote access experience.
Changing customer interactions will require better mobile security
It isn’t just employees who will need better mobile security. Businesses will change the way that they interact with customers too. We can expect fewer person-to-person interactions in retail as social distancing rules continue. Instead, contact-free transactions will become more important and businesses will move to self-checkout options. Retailers must focus more on mobile devices for everything from browsing products, to ordering and payment.
The increase in QR codes presents a great threat
Retailers and other companies are already starting and will continue to use QR codes more and more to bridge contact with things like menus and payment systems, as well as comply with social distance rules. Users can scan them from two meters away, making them perfect for payments and product information.
The problem is that they were never designed for these applications or digital authentication and can easily be replaced with malicious codes that manipulate smartphones in unexpected and damaging ways. We can expect to see QR code fraud problems increase as the usage of these codes expands in 2021.
The age of the Everywhere Enterprise
One overarching message came through clearly in our conversations with customers: the enterprise changed for the longer term in 2020, and this will have profound effects in 2021. What began as a rushed reaction during a crisis this year will evolve during the next as the IT department joins HR in rethinking employee relationships in the age of the everywhere enterprise.
If 2020 was the year that businesses fell back on the ropes, 2021 will be the one where they bounce forward, moving from a rushed reaction into a thoughtful, measured response.
Multi-factor authentication (MFA) that depends on one of the authentication factors being delivered via SMS and voice calls should be avoided, Alex Weinert, Director of Identity Security at Microsoft, opined.
That’s not to say that MFA should be avoided, though, just that there are safer and more reliable ways to get additional authentication factors.
Why SMS- and voice-based MFA is the least secure option
Last year, Weinert noted that using any form of MFA is better than relying just on a password for security, as it “significantly increases the costs for attackers, which is why the rate of compromise of accounts using any type of MFA is less than 0.1% of the general population.”
But the delivery of authentication factors via publicly switched telephone networks (PSTN) is the least secure of the MFA methods available, he thinks, because:
- The SMS and voice formats aren’t adaptable to user experience expectations, technical advances, and attacker behavior in real-time
- PSTN systems are not 100% reliable, meaning the message or call may not come when needed
- Changing regulations may get in the way of SMS delivery and phone calls
- SMSes and phone calls were designed without encryption and can be intercepted (e.g., via software-defined radios, femotcells, SS7 intercept services, mobile malware, phishing tools)
- Support agents at companies operating publicly switched telephone networks can be tricked, bribed or coerced by attackers into providing access to the victims’ SMS or voice channel (e.g., via SIM swapping)
MFA is a must
The value of multi-factor authentication is not in question, but as more and more users adopt it, attackers will try come up with new ways to grab the needed OTP authentication codes.
Weinert advised users to, if possible, switch from SMS- and voice-based MFA to using app-based authentication. Naturally, he endorsed the Microsoft Authenticator app, but there are other apps that serve the same function (such as Google Authenticator, Cisco’s Duo Mobile) and the same protections (encrypted communication, more control, etc.).
There are other MFA options available, and some offer an even greater degree of safety against remote attacks, such as smart cards or security keys – actual physical devices attackers should get their hands on in order to gain access to secured accounts.
Organizations underwent an unprecedented IT change this year amid a massive shift to remote work, accelerating adoption of cloud technology, Duo Security reveals.
The security implications of this transition will reverberate for years to come, as the hybrid workplace demands the workforce to be secure, connected and productive from anywhere.
The report details how organizations, with a mandate to rapidly transition their entire workforce to remote, turned to remote access technologies such as VPN and RDP, among numerous other efforts.
As a result, authentication activity to these technologies swelled 60%. A complementary survey recently found that 96% of organizations made cybersecurity policy changes during the COVID-19, with more than half implementing MFA.
Cloud adoption also accelerated
Daily authentications to cloud applications surged 40% during the first few months of the pandemic, the bulk of which came from enterprise and mid-sized organizations looking to ensure secure access to various cloud services.
As organizations scrambled to acquire the requisite equipment to support remote work, employees relied on personal or unmanaged devices in the interim. Consequently, blocked access attempts due to out-of-date devices skyrocketed 90% in March. That figure fell precipitously in April, indicating healthier devices and decreased risk of breach due to malware.
“As the pandemic began, the priority for many organizations was keeping the lights on and accepting risk in order to accomplish this end,” said Dave Lewis, Global Advisory CISO, Duo Security at Cisco. “Attention has now turned towards lessening risk by implementing a more mature and modern security approach that accounts for a traditional corporate perimeter that has been completely upended.”
Additional report findings
So long, SMS – The prevalence of SIM-swapping attacks has driven organizations to strengthen their authentication schemes. Year-over-year, the percentage of organizations that enforce a policy to disallow SMS authentication nearly doubled from 8.7% to 16.1%.
Biometrics booming – Biometrics are nearly ubiquitous across enterprise users, paving the way for a passwordless future. Eighty percent of mobile devices used for work have biometrics configured, up 12% the past five years.
Cloud apps on pace to pass on-premises apps – Use of cloud apps are on pace to surpass use of on-premises apps by next year, accelerated by the shift to remote work. Cloud applications make up 13.2% of total authentications, a 5.4% increase year-over-year, while on-premises applications encompass 18.5% of total authentications, down 1.5% since last year.
Apple devices 3.5 times more likely to update quickly vs. Android – Ecosystem differences have security consequences. On June 1, Apple iOS and Android both issued software updates to patch critical vulnerabilities in their respective operating systems.
iOS devices were 3.5 times more likely to be updated within 30 days of a security update or patch, compared to Android.
Windows 7 lingers in healthcare despite security risks – More than 30% of Windows devices in healthcare organizations still run Windows 7, despite end-of-life status, compared with 10% of organizations across Duo’s customer base.
Healthcare providers are often unable to update deprecated operating systems due to compliance requirements and restrictive terms and conditions of third-party software vendors.
Windows devices, Chrome browser dominate business IT – Windows continues its dominance in the enterprise, accounting for 59% of devices used to access protected applications, followed by macOS at 23%. Overall, mobile devices account for 15% of corporate access (iOS: 11.4%, Android: 3.7%).
On the browser side, Chrome is king with 44% of total browser authentications, resulting in stronger security hygiene overall for organizations.
UK and EU trail US in securing cloud – United Kingdom and European Union-based organizations trail US-based enterprises in user authentications to cloud applications, signaling less cloud use overall or a larger share of applications not protected by MFA.
Akamai published a report detailing criminal activity targeting the retail, travel, and hospitality industries with attacks of all types and sizes between July 2018 and June 2020. The report also includes numerous examples of criminal ads from the darknet illustrating how they cash in on the results from successful attacks and the corresponding data theft.
“This is why credential stuffing has become so popular over the past few years. These days, retail and loyalty profiles contain a smorgasbord of personal information, and in some cases financial information too. All of this data can be collected, sold, and traded or even compiled for extensive profiles that can later be used for crimes such as identity theft.”
Recirculating old credential lists to identify new vulnerable accounts
During the COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns in Q1 2020, criminals took advantage of the worldwide situation and circulated password combination lists, targeting each of the commerce industries featured in the report.
It was during this time that criminals started recirculating old credential lists in an effort to identify new vulnerable accounts, leading to a significant uptick in criminal inventory and sales related to loyalty programs.
Between July 2018 and June 2020, more than 100 billion credential stuffing attacks ere observed in total. In the commerce category – comprising the retail, travel, and hospitality industries – there were 63,828,642,449 recorded. More than 90% of the attacks in the commerce category targeted the retail industry.
Credential stuffing isn’t the only way that criminals target the retail, travel, and hospitality industries. They target organizations in these industries at the source using SQL Injection (SQLi) and Local File Inclusion (LFI) attacks.
Between July 2018 and June 2020, 4,375,711,860 web attacks against retail, travel, and hospitality were observed, accounting for 41% of the overall attack volume across all industries. Within this data set, 83% of those web attacks targeted the retail sector alone.
SQLi attacks are an evident favorite among criminals, accounting for just under 79% of the total web application attacks against retail, travel, and hospitality.
The holiday shopping season altered by the pandemic
As the global economy prepares for a holiday shopping season, it does so in an environment that has changed radically due to the pandemic. Consumers will not be standing outside of brick and mortar stores waiting for the latest deals in the same way they have in the past. They’re going to log-in, collect their reward points, and maybe use loyalty programs to gain some discounts or other perks just for being a member.
Considering everything that goes into a successful loyalty program, and the information people need to provide in order to take part, the criminals have everything they need to get started in a number of crime-related ventures, from account takeovers, to straight-up identity theft. So, while an individual’s loyalty to a merchant, airline, or hotel chain might not literally be for sale, there’s a good chance the account associated with such programs might be.
“All businesses need to adapt to external events, whether it’s a pandemic, a competitor, or an active and intelligent attacker,” Ragan concluded.
“Some of the top loyalty programs targeted require nothing more than a mobile number and a numeric password, while others rely on easily obtained information as a means of authentication. There is an urgent need for better identity controls and countermeasures to prevent attacks against APIs and server resources.”
Remote work has left many organizations lagging in productivity and revenue due to remote access solutions. 19% of IT leaders surveyed said they often or always experience network performance and latency issues when using legacy remote access solutions, with an additional 43% saying they sometimes do.
Those issues have resulted in a loss of productivity for 68% of respondents and a loss of revenue for 43%, a Perimeter 81 report reveals.
According to the report, organizations securely connect to internal networks in a variety of ways when working remotely. Some 66% reported using VPNs, 58% said they use a cloud service through a web browser, 48% rely on a remote access solution, and 34% use a firewall.
The many organizations still using legacy solutions like VPNs and firewalls will struggle to scale, face bottlenecks, and lack network visibility.
security solutions and remote work
33% of respondents said a password is the only way they authenticate themselves to gain access to systems. And while 62% of IT managers said they are using cloud-based security solutions to secure remote access, 49% said they’re still using a firewall, and 41% a hardware VPN.
But there are signs of progress, as organizations increasingly favor modern cloud-based solutions over outdated legacy solutions. Following the pandemic and a switch to remote work, 72% of respondents said they’re very or completely likely to increase adoption of cloud-based security solutions, 38% higher than before the pandemic.
“It’s no surprise that companies are increasingly moving to cloud-based cyber and network security platforms. As corporations of all sizes rely on the cloud to run their businesses, they need new ways of consuming security to effectively prevent cyberattacks regardless of their location or network environment.”
Other key findings
- 74% of respondents are adopting cloud-based security solutions over hardware due to security concerns. 44% are doing so due to scalability concerns, and 43% cited time-saving considerations.
- 61% of organizations believe that having to protect new devices is the greatest security concern in light of remote work, while 56% said their greatest concern was lack of visibility into remote user activity.
- 39% of respondents reported that scalability is their greatest challenge in securing the remote workforce, while 38% said budget allocation was their greatest challenge.
We are beginning to shift away from what has long been our first and last line of defense: the password. It’s an exciting time. Since the beginning, passwords have aggravated people. Meanwhile, passwords have become the de facto first step in most attacks. Yet I can’t help but think, what will the consequences of our actions be?
Intended and unintended consequences
Back when overhead cameras came to the express toll routes in Ontario, Canada, it wasn’t long before the SQL injection to drop tables made its way onto bumper stickers. More recently in California, researcher Joe Tartaro purchased a license plate that said NULL. With the bumper stickers, the story goes, everyone sharing the road would get a few hours of toll-free driving. But with the NULL license plate? Tartaro ended up on the hook for every traffic ticket with no plate specified, to the tune of thousands of dollars.
One organization I advised recently completed an initiative to reduce the number of agents on the endpoint. In a year when many are extending the lifespan and performance of endpoints while eliminating location-dependent security controls, this shift makes strategic sense.
Another CISO I spoke with recently consolidated multi-factor authenticators onto a single platform. Standardizing the user experience and reducing costs is always a pragmatic move. Yet these moves limited future moves. In both cases, any initiative by the security team which changed authenticators or added agents ended up stuck in park, waiting for a greenlight.
Be careful not to limit future moves
To make moves that open up possibilities, security teams think along two lines: usability and defensibility. That is, how will the change impact the workforce, near term and long term? On the opposite angle, how will the change affect criminal behavior, near term and long term?
Whether decreasing the number of passwords required through single sign-on (SSO) or eliminating the password altogether in favor of a strong authentication factor (passwordless), the priority is on the workforce experience. The number one reason for tackling the password problem given by security leaders is improving the user experience. It is a rare security control that makes people’s lives easier and leadership wants to take full advantage.
There are two considerations when planning for usability. The first is ensuring the tactic addresses the common friction points. For example, with passwordless, does the approach provide access to devices and applications people work with? Is it more convenient and faster what they do today? The second consideration is evaluating what the tactic allows the security team to do next. Does the approach to passwordless or SSO block a future initiative due to lock-in? Or will the change enable us to take future steps to secure authentication?
The one thing we know for certain is, whatever steps we take, criminals will take steps to get around us. In the sixty years since the first password leak, we’ve done everything we can, using both machine and man. We’ve encrypted passwords. We’ve hashed them. We increased key length and algorithm strength. At the same time, we’ve asked users to create longer passwords, more complex passwords, unique passwords. We’ve provided security awareness training. None of these steps were taken in a vacuum. Criminals cracked files, created rainbow tables, brute-forced and phished credentials. Sixty years of experience suggests the advancement we make will be met with an advanced attack.
We must increase the trust in authentication while increasing usability, and we must take steps that open up future options. Security teams can increase trust by pairing user authentication with device authentication. Now the adversary must both compromise the authentication and gain access to the device.
To reduce the likelihood of device compromise, set policies to prevent unpatched, insecure, infected, or compromised devices from authenticating. The likelihood can be even further reduced by capturing telemetry, modeling activity, and comparing activity to the user’s baseline. Now the adversary must compromise authentication, gain access to the endpoint device, avoid endpoint detection, and avoid behavior analytics.
Technology is full of unintended consequences. Some lead to tollfree drives and others lead to unexpected fees. Some open new opportunities, others new vulnerabilities. Today, many are moving to improve user experience by reducing or removing passwords. The consequences won’t be known immediately. We must ensure our approach meets the use cases the workforce cares about while positioning us to address longer-term goals and challenges.
Additionally, we must get ahead of adversaries and criminals. With device trust and behavior analytics, we must increase trust in passwordless authentication. We can’t predict what is to come, but these are steps security teams can take today to better position and protect our organizations.
In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, global biometric device revenues are expected to drop 22%, ($1.8 billion) to $6.6 billion, according to a report from ABI Research. The entire biometrics market, however, will regain momentum in 2021 and is expected to reach approximately $40 billion in total revenues by 2025.
Global biometric device revenues in 2020
“The current decline in the biometrics market landscape stems from multifaceted challenges from a governmental, commercial, and technological nature,” explains Dimitris Pavlakis, Digital Security Industry Analyst.
“First, they have been instigated primarily due to economic reforms during the crisis which forced governments to constrain budgets and focus on damage control, personnel well-being, and operational efficiency.
“Governments had to delay or temporarily cancel many fingerprint-based applications related to user/citizen and patient registration, physical access control, on-premise workforce management, and certain applications in border control or civil, welfare, immigration, law enforcement, and correctional facilities.
“Second, commercial on-premise applications and access control suffered as the rise of the remote workers became the new norm for the first half of 2020. Lastly, hygiene concerns due to contact-based fingerprint technologies pummelled biometrics revenues forcing a sudden drop in fingerprint shipments worldwide.”
Not all is bleak, though
New use-case scenarios have emerged, and certain technological trends have risen to the top of the implementation lists. For example, enterprise mobility and logical access control using biometrics as part of multi-factor authentication (MFA) for remote workers.
“Current MFA applications for remote workers might well translate into permanent information technology security authentication measures in the long term,” says Pavlakis. “This will improve biometrics-as-a-service (BaaS) monetization and authentication models down the line.”
Biometrics applications can now look toward new implementation horizons, with market leaders and pioneering companies like Gemalto (Thales), IDEMIA, NEC, FPC, HID Global, and Cognitec at the forefront of innovation.
“Future smart city infrastructure investments will now factor in additional surveillance, real-time behavioral analytics, and face recognition for epidemiological research, monitoring, and emergency response endeavors,” Pavlakis concludes.
Information security policies (ISP) that are not grounded in the realities of an employee’s work responsibilities and priorities expose organizations to higher risk for data breaches, according to a research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.
The study’s findings, that subcultures within an organization influence whether employees violate ISP or not, have led researchers to recommend an overhaul of the design and implementation of ISP, and to work with employees to find ways to seamlessly fit ISP compliance into their day-to-day tasks.
“The frequency, scope and cost of data breaches have been increasing dramatically in recent years, and the majority of these cases happen because humans are the weakest link in the security chain. Non-compliance to ISP by employees is one of the important factors,” said Sumantra Sarkar, associate professor of management information systems in Binghamton University’s School of Management.
“We wanted to understand why certain employees were more likely to comply with information security policies than others in an organization.”
How subcultures influence compliance within healthcare orgs
Sarkar, with a research team, sought to determine how subcultures influence compliance, specifically within healthcare organizations.
“Every organization has a culture that is typically set by top management. But within that, you have subcultures among different professional groups in the organization,” said Sarkar. “Each of these groups are trained in a different way and are responsible for different tasks.”
Sarkar and his fellow researchers focused on ISP compliance within three subcultures found in a hospital setting – physicians, nurses and support staff.
The expansive study took years to complete, with one researcher embedding in a hospital for over two years to observe and analyze activities, as well as to conduct interviews and surveys with multiple employees.
Because patient data in a hospital is highly confidential, one area researchers focused on was the requirement for hospital employees to lock their electronic health record (EHR) workstation when not present.
“Physicians, who are dealing with emergency situations constantly were more likely to leave a workstation unlocked. They were more worried about the immediate care of a patient than the possible risk of a data breach,” said Sarkar.
“On the opposite end, support staff rarely kept workstations unlocked when they were away, as they felt they were more likely to be punished or fired should a data breach occur.”
Researchers concluded that each subculture within an organization will respond differently to the organization-wide ISP, leaving organizations open to a higher possibility of data breaches.
Their recommendation – consult with each subculture while developing ISP.
“Information security professionals should have a better understanding of the day-to-day tasks of each professional group, and then find ways to seamlessly integrate ISP compliance within those job tasks,” said Sarkar. “It is critical that we find ways to redesign ISP systems and processes in order to create less friction.”
In the context of a hospital setting, Sarkar recommends touchless, proximity-based authentication mechanisms that could lock or unlock workstations when an employee approaches or leaves a workstation.
Researchers also found that most employees understand the value of ISP compliance, and realize the potential cost of a data breach. However, Sarkar believes that outdated information security policies’ compliance measures have the potential to put employees in a conflict of priorities.
“There shouldn’t be situations where physicians are putting the entire hospital at risk for a data breach because they are dealing with a patient who needs emergency care,” he said. “We need to find ways to accommodate the responsibilities of different employees within an organization.”
On Risk-Based Authentication
Interesting usability study: “More Than Just Good Passwords? A Study on Usability and Security Perceptions of Risk-based Authentication“:
Abstract: Risk-based Authentication (RBA) is an adaptive security measure to strengthen password-based authentication. RBA monitors additional features during login, and when observed feature values differ significantly from previously seen ones, users have to provide additional authentication factors such as a verification code. RBA has the potential to offer more usable authentication, but the usability and the security perceptions of RBA are not studied well.
We present the results of a between-group lab study (n=65) to evaluate usability and security perceptions of two RBA variants, one 2FA variant, and password-only authentication. Our study shows with significant results that RBA is considered to be more usable than the studied 2FA variants, while it is perceived as more secure than password-only authentication in general and comparably se-cure to 2FA in a variety of application types. We also observed RBA usability problems and provide recommendations for mitigation.Our contribution provides a first deeper understanding of the users’perception of RBA and helps to improve RBA implementations for a broader user acceptance.
Sidebar photo of Bruce Schneier by Joe MacInnis.
The cybersecurity market is growing even in the midst of the pandemic-driven economic downturn, with spending predicted to reach $123 billion by the end of the year. While disruptive technologies are undoubtedly behind much of this market growth, companies cannot afford to overlook security basics.
Biometrics may be a media darling, but the truth is that passwords will remain the primary authentication mechanism for the foreseeable future. But while passwords may not be a cutting-edge security innovation, that’s not to suggest that CIOs don’t need to modernize their approach to password management.
Mandatory password resets
Employees’ poor password management practices are well-documented, with Google finding that 65% of people use the same password for multiple, if not all, online accounts. To circumvent the security risks associated with this behavior, companies have historically focused on periodic password resets. Seventy-seven percent of IT departments surveyed by Forrester in 2016 were expiring passwords for all staff on a quarterly basis.
This approach made sense in the early days of the digital age, when employees typically only had a handful of passwords to remember. I’d argue that times had already changed by 2016, but we are certainly in an entirely different landscape today. As digital transformation accelerates and employees are faced with managing multiple passwords for all of their accounts, it’s simply no longer realistic or wise to force frequent password resets.
It’s time to retire password expiration
Both NIST and Microsoft have recently come out against forced periodic password resets for a variety of reasons, including:
- Password expiration eats up significant resources and budget. According to Forrester, a single password reset costs $70 of help desk labor. When you multiply this by the average number of employees in a typical organization, it’s easy to see how password expiration can become an unwieldy expense and add significant pressure on overburdened IT teams.
- It encourages poor cybersecurity practices. When users are frequently asked to change passwords they typically create weaker ones—for example, slight variants of the original password or the same root word or phrase with different special characters for each account.
- The practice impedes efficiency and introduces friction. Forced resets have a negative impact on productivity as employees often struggle to remember their passwords. One recent study found that 78% of people had to reset a password they forgot in the past 90 days, eating up valuable time that could have better been deployed elsewhere. In addition, the frustration associated with frequent changes can cause employees to seek a workaround or engage in poor security practices like sharing passwords among colleagues or reusing personal passwords for corporate accounts.
Exposure, not expiration
The fundamental purpose of passwords is to ensure that no one but the authorized user has access to the account or system in question. As such, it follows that password security has evolved from a focus on expiration to a focus on exposure. If credentials are secure, there is no reason for companies to incur the cost and other issues associated with forcing a reset. It’s critical that CIOs adopt this mindset and evaluate how they can continuously screen passwords to ensure their integrity.
Putting NIST’s recommendations into practice
According to NIST, companies should compare passwords “ …against a list that contains values known to be commonly-used, expected or compromised… The list MAY include, but is not limited to:
- Passwords obtained from previous breach corpuses
- Dictionary words
- Repetitive or sequential characters
- Context-specific words, such as the name of the service, the username, and derivatives thereof.”
Given that multiple data breaches occur in virtually every sector on a daily basis, companies need a dynamic, automated solution that can cross-reference proposed passwords against known breach data. In this environment, it’s highly likely that a password could be secure at its creation but become compromised down the road. As such, CIOs also need to monitor password security on a daily basis and take steps to protect sensitive information if a compromise is detected.
Depending on the nature of the account and the employee’s privilege this could take a variety of forms, including:
- Stepping up MFA or additional authentication mechanisms
- Forcing a password reset
- Temporarily suspending access to the account
Because these actions occur only if a compromise has been detected, this modern approach to credential screening eliminates the unnecessary cost and friction associated with password expiration.
Protecting the password layer in the new normal
Replacing password expiration with password exposure will be particularly critical as CIOs manage an increasingly hybrid workforce. With Gartner finding that 74% of organizations plan to shift some employees to permanent remote work positions, it’s likely that users will be creating new digital accounts and accessing different services online.
A modern password management approach that continuously screens for any credential compromise is the best way that organizations can secure this complex environment while simultaneously encouraging productivity and reducing help desk costs.
While passwords may not be going away completely, 92 percent of respondents believe passwordless authentication is the future of their organization, according to a LastPass survey.
Passwordless authentication reduces password related risks by enabling users to login to devices and applications without the need to type in a password.
Technologies such as biometric authentication, single-sign-on (SSO) and federated identity streamline the user experience for employees within an organization, while still maintaining a high level of security and complete control for IT and security teams.
Organizations still have a password problem
Problems with passwords are still an ongoing struggle for organizations. The amount of time that IT teams spend managing users’ password and login information has increased year over year.
In fact, those surveyed suggest that weekly time spent managing users’ passwords has increased 25 percent since 2019. Given this, 85 percent of IT and security professionals agree that their organization should look to reduce the number of passwords that individuals use on a daily basis.
Additionally, 95 percent respondents surveyed say there are risks to using passwords which could contribute to threats in their organization, notably human behaviors like password reuse or password weakness.
Security priorities are at odds with user experience
When it comes to managing an organization, security is a core challenge for IT teams. However, it is the lack of convenience and ease of use that employees care about. Security is the main source of frustration for the IT department, particularly when issues are often derived from user behavior when managing passwords.
The top three frustrations for IT teams include users using the same password across applications (54 percent), users forgetting passwords (49 percent) and time spent on password management (45 percent).
For employees, the issues lie in convenience. Their top three frustrations are changing passwords regularly (56 percent), remembering multiple passwords (54 percent) and typing long, complex passwords (49 percent).
Primary benefits of passwordless authentication
Better security (69 percent) and eliminating password related risk (58 percent) are believed by respondents to be the top benefits of deploying a passwordless authentication model for their organization’s IT infrastructure. Time (54 percent) and cost (48 percent) savings are also noted benefits of going passwordless.
Meanwhile, for employees a passwordless authentication model would help to address efficiency concerns. 53 percent of respondents report that passwordless authentication offers the potential to provide convenient access from anywhere, which is key given the shift towards remote work that is likely here to stay.
Top challenges of passwordless deployment
While going passwordless can provide a more secure authentication method, there are challenges in the deployment of a passwordless model.
Respondents report the initial financial investment required to migrate to such solutions (43 percent), the regulations around the storage of the data required (41 percent) and the initial time required to migrate to new types of methods (40 percent) as the biggest challenges for their organization to overcome.
There are also some concerns around resistance to change. Three quarters of IT and security professionals (72 percent) think that end users in their organization would prefer to continue using passwords, as it is what they are used to.
Passwords are not going away completely
When it comes to identity and access management, 85 percent do not think passwords are going away completely. Yet, 92 percent of respondents believe that delivering a passwordless experience for end-users is the future for their organization.
There is a clear need to find a solution that combines passwordless authentication and password management in today’s organizations.
“As many organizations transition to a long-term remote work culture, giving your employees the tools and resources to be secure online in their personal lives as well as in the home office is more important now than ever,” said Gerald Beuchelt, CISO at LogMeIn.
“This report shows the continued challenge that organizations face with password security and the need for a passwordless authentication solution to enable both IT teams and employees to operate more efficiently and securely in this changing environment.”
IoT gateways are becoming an increasingly important link in the IoT security and device authentication value chain and emerging as a crucial conduit for intelligent operations across the entire IoT.
The new wave of next-generation smart IoT gateways has arrived at an opportune time, enabling a breadth of novel security, intelligence, and authentication operations at the edge, causing IoT vendors to revisit their deployment and management strategies.
According to ABI Research, there will be 21.4 million next-gen smart IoT gateways shipped in 2025.
“Smart IoT gateways are currently caught amid a greater transformative evolution, further enhancing capabilities for gateways, shifting focus toward the edge, and reversing the cloud-centric investment priorities of the past decade,” states Dimitrios Pavlakis, Digital Security analyst at ABI Research.
The characteristics of next-gen smart IoT gateways
The primary characteristics of next-gen IoT gateways include enhanced cybersecurity options, extended connectivity support, edge processing and filtering, authentication and management, cloud services, analytics, and intelligence operations.
These highly demanding technological characteristics have been steadily reaching the core of the implementation lists of IoT implementers, shifting the dynamics of IoT security and pulling focus ever closer to the edge.
“This is not to say that edge-focused IoT gateways will completely replace data servers and cloud computing – far from it. Rather they are set to create a more symbiotic relationship between them while increasing the amount of responsibility towards edge computing and intelligence-gathering operations,” Pavlakis explains.
Turning challenges into well-honed value propositions
The current market demands brought forth by the intense increase of IoT technologies allow gateway vendors to turn challenges into well-honed value propositions. This can include tackling the secure transition of legacy equipment into larger IoT fleets, enable increased visibility, monitoring, and management of IoT devices, aid in the clash between IT and OT in industrial and healthcare systems, and streamline digital security and device management.
The surge of IoT gateways shipments is expected to create a variable penetration rate across different IoT end markets led by innovative gateway vendors like Advantech, Cisco, Kerlink, MultiTech, and Sierra Wireless.
“The data suggest that video surveillance, heavy transport vehicles and equipment, intelligent transportation, and fleet management depict the highest penetration rate for the next-level security and intelligence components for smart IoT gateways, with a clear focus revolving around automotive verticals and data-heavy applications,” Pavlakis concludes.
New Bluetooth Vulnerability
There’s a new unpatched Bluetooth vulnerability:
The issue is with a protocol called Cross-Transport Key Derivation (or CTKD, for short). When, say, an iPhone is getting ready to pair up with Bluetooth-powered device, CTKD’s role is to set up two separate authentication keys for that phone: one for a “Bluetooth Low Energy” device, and one for a device using what’s known as the “Basic Rate/Enhanced Data Rate” standard. Different devices require different amounts of data — and battery power — from a phone. Being able to toggle between the standards needed for Bluetooth devices that take a ton of data (like a Chromecast), and those that require a bit less (like a smartwatch) is more efficient. Incidentally, it might also be less secure.
According to the researchers, if a phone supports both of those standards but doesn’t require some sort of authentication or permission on the user’s end, a hackery sort who’s within Bluetooth range can use its CTKD connection to derive its own competing key. With that connection, according to the researchers, this sort of erzatz authentication can also allow bad actors to weaken the encryption that these keys use in the first place — which can open its owner up to more attacks further down the road, or perform “man in the middle” style attacks that snoop on unprotected data being sent by the phone’s apps and services.
Patches are not immediately available at the time of writing. The only way to protect against BLURtooth attacks is to control the environment in which Bluetooth devices are paired, in order to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, or pairings with rogue devices carried out via social engineering (tricking the human operator).
However, patches are expected to be available at one point. When they’ll be, they’ll most likely be integrated as firmware or operating system updates for Bluetooth capable devices.
The timeline for these updates is, for the moment, unclear, as device vendors and OS makers usually work on different timelines, and some may not prioritize security patches as others. The number of vulnerable devices is also unclear and hard to quantify.
Many Bluetooth devices can’t be patched.
Final note: this seems to be another example of simultaneous discovery:
According to the Bluetooth SIG, the BLURtooth attack was discovered independently by two groups of academics from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Purdue University.
Traditional password-based security might be headed for extinction, but that moment is still far off.
In the meantime, most of us need something to prevent our worst instincts when it comes to choosing passwords: using personal information, predictable (e.g., sequential) keystroke patterns, password variations, well-known substitutions, single words from a dictionary and – above all – reusing the same password for many different private and enterprise accounts.
What does a modern password policy look like?
While using unique passwords for every account is a piece of advice that has withstood the test of time (though not the test of widespread compliance), people also used to be told that they should use a mix of letters, numbers and symbols and to change it every 90 days – recommendations that the evolving threat landscape has made obsolete and even somewhat harmful.
In the past decade, academic research on the topic of password practices and insights gleaned from passwords compromised in breaches have revealed what people were actually doing when they were creating passwords. This helped unseat some of the prevailing password policies that were in place for so long, Josh Horwitz, Chief Operations Officer of Enzoic, told Help Net Security.
The latest NIST-sanctioned advice regarding enterprise password policies (as delineated in NIST Special Publication 800-63B) includes, among other things, the removal of the requirement for character composition rules and for mandatory periodic password changes. Those are recommendations that are also being promulgated by Microsoft.
As data breaches now happen every single day and attackers are trying out the revealed passwords on different accounts in the hope that the user has reused them, NIST also advises companies to verify that passwords are not compromised before they are activated and check their status on an ongoing basis, against a dynamic database comprised of known compromised credentials.
The need for modern tools
But the thing is, most older password policy tools don’t provide a method to check if a password is strong and not compromised once the password is chosen/set.
There’s really only one that both checks the passwords at creation and continuously monitors their resilience to credential stuffing attacks, by checking them against a massive (7+ billion) database of compromised credentials that is updated every single day.
“Some organizations will gather this information from the dark web and other places where you can get lists of compromised passwords, but most tools aren’t designed to incorporate it and it’s still a very manual process to try to keep that information up to date. It’s effectively really hard to maintain the breadth and frequency of data updates that are required for this approach to work as it should,” Horwitz noted.
But for Enzoic, this is practically one of its core missions.
“We have people whose full-time job is to go out and gather threat intelligence, databases of compromised passwords, and cracking dictionaries. We’ve also invested substantially in proprietary technology to automate that process of collection, cleansing and indexing of that information,” he explained.
“Our database is updated multiple times each day, and we’re really getting the breadth of data out there, by integrating both large and small compromised databases in our list – because hackers will use any database they can get their hands on, not just those stolen in well-publicized data breaches.”
Enzoic for Active Directory
This constantly updated list/database is what powers Enzoic for Active Directory, a tool (plug-in) that integrates into Active Directory and enforces additional password rules to prevent users from using compromised credentials.
The solution checks the password both when it’s created and when it’s reset and checks it daily against this real-time compromised password database. Furthermore, it does so automatically, without the IT team having to do anything except set it up once.
Enzoic for AD is able to detect and prevent the use of:
- Fuzzy variations of compromised passwords
- Unsafe passwords consisting of an often-used root word and a few trailing symbols and numbers
- New passwords that are too similar to the one the user previously used
- Passwords that employees at specific organizations are expected to choose (this is accomplished by using a custom dictionary that can be tailored to each organization)
The tool uses a standard password filter object to create a new password policy that works anywhere that defers to Active Directory, including Azure AD and third-party password reset tools.
Can multi-factor authentication save us?
Many will wonder whether such a tool is really crucial for keeping AD accounts safe. “What if we also use multi-factor authentication? Doesn’t that solve our authentication problems and keeps us safe from attacks?”
In reality, password remain part in every environment, and not every authentication event includes multi-factor authentication (MFA).
“You can offer MFA, but until you actually require its use and get rid of the password, there’s always going to be doors in that the attackers can use,” Horwitz pointed out.
“NIST also makes it very clear that authentication security should include multiple layers, and that each of these layers – including the password layer – need to be hardened.”
Do you really need Enzoic for Active Directory?
Enzoic has made it easy for enterprises to check whether some of the AD passwords used by their employees are weak or have been compromised: they can deploy a free password auditing tool (Enzoic for Active Directory Lite) to take a quick snapshot of their domain’s password security state.
“Some password auditing tools take long time to try to brute-force passwords, but attackers are much more likely to start their efforts with compromised passwords,” Horwitz added.
“Our tool takes just minutes to perform the audit, it’s simple to run, and allows IT and IT security leaders and professionals to realize the extent of the problem and to easily communicate the issue to the business side.”
Enzoic for Active Directory is likewise simple to install and use, and is built for easy implementation and automatic maintenance of the modern password policy.
“It’s a low complexity tool, but this is where it really shines: it allows you to screen passwords against a massive database of compromised passwords that gets updated every day – and allows you to do this at lightning speed, so that it can be done at the time that the password is being created without any friction or interruption to the user – and it rechecks that password each day, to detect when a password is no longer secure and trigger/mandate a password change.“
Aside from checking the passwords against this constantly updated list, it also prevents users from using:
- Common dictionary words or words that are often used for passwords (e.g., names of sports teams)
- Expected passwords and those that are too similar to users’ old password
- Context-specific passwords and variations (e.g., words that are specific to the business the enterprise is in, or words that employees living in a specific town or region might use)
- User-specific passwords and variations (e.g., their first name, last name, username, email address – based on those field values in Active Directory)
Time and time again, it has been proven that if left to their own devices, users will employ predictable patterns when choosing a password and will reuse one password over multiple accounts.
When the compromised account doesn’t hold sensitive information or allows access to sensitive assets, these practices might not lead to catastrophic results for the user. But the stakes are much higher when it comes to enterprise accounts, and especially Active Directory accounts, as AD is most companies’ primary solution for access to network resources.
91 percent of people know that using the same password on multiple accounts is a security risk, yet 66 percent continue to use the same password anyway. IT security practitioners are aware of good habits when it comes to strong authentication and password management, yet often fail to implement them due to poor usability or inconvenience.
To select a suitable password management solution for your business, you need to think about a variety of factors. We’ve talked to several cybersecurity professionals to get their insight on the topic.
Simran Anand, Head of B2B Growth, Dashlane
An organization’s security chain is only as strong as its weakest link – so selecting a password manager should be a top priority among IT leaders. While most look to the obvious: security (high grade encryption, 2FA, etc.), support, and price, it’s critical to also consider the end-user experience. Why? Because user adoption remains by far IT’s biggest challenge. Only 17 percent of IT leaders incorporate the end-UX when evaluating password management tools.
It’s not surprising, then, that those who have deployed a password manager in their company report only 23 percent adoption by employees. The end-UX has to be a priority for IT leaders who aim to guarantee secure processes for their companies.
Password management is too important a link in the security chain to be compromised by a lack of adoption (and simply telling employees to follow good password practices isn’t enough to ensure it actually happens). For organizations to leverage the benefits of next-generation password security, they need to ensure their password management solution is easy to use – and subsequently adopted by all employees.
Gerald Beuchelt, CISO, LogMeIn
As the world continues to navigate a long-term future of remote work, cybercriminals will continue to target users with poor security behaviors, given the increased time spent online due to COVID-19. Although organizations and people understand that passwords play a huge role in one’s overall security, many continue to neglect best password practices. For this reason, businesses should implement a password management solution.
It is essential to look for a password management solution that:
- Monitors poor password hygiene and provides visibility to the improvements that could be made to encourage better password management.
- Standardizes and enforces policies across the organization to support proper password protection.
- Provides a secure password management portal for employees to access all account passwords conveniently.
- Reports IT insights to provide a detailed security report of potential threats.
- Equips IT to audit the access controls users have with the ability to change permissions and encourage the use of new passwords.
- Integrates with previous and existing infrastructure to automate and accelerate workflows.
- Oversees when users share accounts to maintain a sense of security and accountability.
Using a password management solution that is effective is crucial to protecting business information. Finding the right solution will not only help to improve employee password behaviors but also increase your organization’s overall online security.
Michael Crandell, CEO, Bitwarden
Employees, like many others, face the daily challenge of remembering passwords to securely work online. A password manager simplifies generating, storing, and sharing unique and complex passwords – a must-have for security.
There are a number of reputable password managers out there. Businesses should prioritize those that work cross-platform and offer affordable plans. They should consider if the solution can be deployed in the cloud or on-premises. A self-hosting option is often preferred by some organizations for security and internal compliance reasons.
Password managers need to be easy-to-use for every level of user – from beginner to advanced. Any employee should be able to get up and running in minutes on the devices they use.
As of late, many businesses have shifted to a remote work model, which has highlighted the importance of online collaboration and the need to share work resources online. With this in mind, businesses should prioritize options that provide a secure way to share passwords across teams. Doing so keeps everyone’s access secure even when they’re spread out across many locations.
Finally, look for password managers built around an open source approach. Being open source means the source code can be vetted by experienced developers and security researchers who can identify potential security issues, and even contribute to resolving them.
Matt Davey, COO, 1Password
65% of people reuse passwords for some or all of their accounts. Often, this is because they don’t have the right tools to easily create and use strong passwords, which is why you need a password manager.
Opt for a password manager that gives you oversight over the things that matter most to your business: from who’s signed in from where, who last accessed certain items, or which email addresses on your domain have been included in a breach.
To keep the admin burden low, look for a password manager that allows you to manage access by groups, delegate admin powers, and manage users at scale. Depending on the structure of your business, it can be useful to grant access to information by project, location, or team.
You’ll also want to think about how a password manager will fit with your existing IAM/security stack. Some password managers integrate with identity providers, streamlining provisioning and administration.
Above all, if you want your employees to adopt your password manager of choice, make sure it’s easy to use: a password manager will only keep you secure if your employees actually use it.
Perform a quick Google search for “causes of data breaches”, and you will be inundated with reports of stolen credentials and weak passwords. Organizations can spend billions on technology to harden their systems against attack, but they are fighting a losing battle until they are able to confidently attribute a login with a valid user.
Image by the FIDO Alliance
What is FIDO, and why does it matter?
FIDO stands for Fast Identity Online. It is a free and open set of standards and technologies that aims to reduce the world’s reliance on passwords. FIDO is designed to bolster authentication assurance by “protecting” and eliminating passwords.
FIDO-enabled advances in authentication are paving the way to this foundational paradigm shift. Unfortunately, authenticators are not quite there yet, because even though the capabilities are available for incredible strong authentication, implementations can vary, and it is up to implementers to determine how much of FIDO’s security will be integrated into their products.
A few examples: biometrics are supported, but not always implemented; authentication procedures are often cumbersome; passwords are still used as a primary credential. Further, as inherently secure as FIDO standards are, there is always room for improvement. Here are five ways to maximize FIDO.
Maximize FIDO: Use all three factors
More is better – most of the time. Thanks to smartphones, three-factor authentication – something you know, something you have, something you are – should be ubiquitous, but it is not. Many FIDO authenticators are only using two-layered factors, usually something you have and something you know.
While certainly better than just a password, this does not protect against instances such as a device being left open at a café. Using the built-in biometric capabilities inherently supported in all modern smartphones, FIDO-based authenticators can provide 3FA, bolstering security and eliminating such vulnerabilities, all while keeping user friction to a minimum.
Make it simple and secure
Many FIDO-based authenticators implement two-factor authentication (2FA) by interjecting an additional code/PIN from within their authenticator app. The user must remember the PIN and attempt to type it in before the timer runs out, or if the timer is already low, wait for it to be reset before attempting to enter it. Either way, this increases friction for the user and decreases security, and this PIN can still be extracted from the user through social engineering.
There are better ways. Apps should be designed from the ground up with simplicity in mind. An example of a simple and secure method could be a simple three-digit code paired with an image, and nothing for the user to enter. The user would simply ensure the code and image match on their device and portal, and then click “ok”.
Fully leverage existing MDM features
Smartphones, and smart devices for that matter, are everywhere. With the growing number of these devices permeating our planet, wise and insightful minds saw fit to develop technologies to monitor and protect these devices. Mobile device management (MDM) functions can bolster existing authentication paradigms through features such as “geofencing”.
FIDO-enabled authenticators can use geofencing to allow or prevent authentication based on the user’s physical location. Another key MDM feature that should be in place can prevent connections for devices that have been “rooted” or “jailbroken”. These devices present a much greater security threat and can be easily identified using existing technology.
Get rid of passwords
Who here is not guilty of reusing a password or two… or three? Passwords are a legacy security afterthought. Unfortunately, many FIDO-based authenticators are still relying on usernames and passwords as the primary authentication credential pair. But FIDO enables secure certificate-based authentication – we no longer need the password. Passwordless authentication also brings with it the added benefit of decentralized key stores allowing the organizations to get rid of the big red targets that are centralized password repositories.
Use bidirectional authentication
Last but not least, implementing bidirectional authentication can improve on FIDO’s already stellar authentication model. Bidirectional authentication takes the traditional FIDO authentication model and adds server-to-user authentication as well, so before the user sends their authentication information to the server, the server authenticates to the user. This provides an added degree of confidence to the end user and all but eliminates the possibility of a Man-in-the-Middle attack due to there being nothing for the end user to share.
The technology for simple and secure authentication is available and – thanks to FIDO standards and protocols – straightforward to implement. In the end, it comes down to the creativity and diligence of those designing current authenticators to completely leverage the available technology and integrate them in a well-thought-out manner that increases security and decreases user friction.
Army researchers have been awarded a patent for inventing a practical method for Army wireless devices to covertly authenticate and communicate. Photo by Jason Edwards Securing Army wireless devices Authentication is one of the core pillars of wireless communications security, along with secrecy and privacy. The value of authentication in a military setting is readily apparent and mandatory. Receivers verify that an incoming transmission did indeed come from an ally and not a malicious adversary, … More
14% of IT workers are consumed with Identity and Access Management (IAM), spending at least an hour per day on routine IAM tasks, according to 1Password.
IAM continues to be a significant productivity bog for IT and employees alike, with 57% of IT workers resetting employee passwords up to five times per week, and 15% doing so at least 21 times per week.
Shadow IT issues
IAM is often used to detect shadow IT, and 1Password’s survey revealed that it’s largely successful. Four in five workers report always following their company’s IT policy, meaning that just 20% of workers are driving all shadow IT activity in the enterprise. These employees don’t act out of malice but rather a drive to get more done, with 49% citing productivity as their top reason for circumventing IT’s rules.
“The shadow IT picture is more complicated than many think,” said Jeff Shiner, CEO, 1Password. “Most of us follow the rules, but a small group of employees trying to get more done circumvent policies and create openings for credential attacks. They’re sometimes enabled by IT workers who empathize with their pursuit of productivity.”
Ignoring the IT policy
Employees who break their company’s IT policy tend to be:
- Speed demons: They’re nearly twice as likely to say convenience is more important than security—and almost 50% more likely to say strict password requirements aren’t worth the hassle.
- Pessimistic about IT capabilities: Employees who break IT policies are nearly twice as likely to say it’s unrealistic for companies to be aware of and manage all apps and devices used by employees at work, and say the IT department is more of a hindrance than a help.
- Millennials and Gen Z: Nearly three times as many workers who are 18-39 say they do not always follow IT policies, compared to those ages 56 and up.
Lack of tools amid the relentless quest for productivity
IT workers cited lack of suitable technology resources and concern for employee effectiveness as the reason nearly one in three IT workers are not fully enforcing security policies.
Twenty-five percent of IT workers say they don’t enforce security policies universally and 4% don’t enforce those policies at all due to the hassle involved with managing policies to concerns over workforce productivity.
Thirty-eight percent of IT workers who do not strictly enforce security policies said their organization’s method for monitoring is not robust, while 29% agreed “it’s just too hard and time consuming to track and enforce” and 28% said “our employees get more done if we just let them manage their own software.”
One in three IT workers say that strict password requirements at work aren’t worth the hassle.
The usage of enterprise password managers
89% of IT departments using a password manager say it’s had a measurable impact on security at their company.
IT departments using EPMs report that they save time and frustration for employees (57%), reduce time for IT departments (45%), enhance productivity (37%), reduce breaches/attacks (26%) and create happier employees (26%).
As organizations across industries rapidly deploy more assets in the public cloud with Amazon, Microsoft, and Google, they’re leaving numerous paths open for exploitation, according to Orca Security.
Cloud estates are being breached through their weakest links of neglected internet-facing workloads, widespread authentication issues, discoverable secrets and credentials, and misconfigured storage buckets.
While public cloud providers such as AWS, Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform keep their platforms secure, customers are still responsible for securing the workloads, data, and processes they run inside the cloud – just as they do in their on-prem world.
Such shared responsibility poses a serious challenge due to the speed and frequency of public cloud deployments. For most organizations, cloud workload security is dependent upon the installation and maintenance of security agents across all assets. However, IT security teams are not always informed of cloud deployments, so this lack of visibility results in missed vulnerabilities and attack vectors.
While organizations must secure their entire estate, attackers only need to find a single weak link to exploit,” said Avi Shua, CEO, Orca Security. “It’s imperative for organizations to have 100 percent public cloud visibility and know about all neglected assets, weak passwords, authentication issues, and misconfigurations to prioritize and fix. The Orca Security 2020 State of Public Cloud Security Report shows how just one gap in cloud coverage can lead to devastating data breaches.”
Neglected internet-facing workloads
Attackers look for vulnerable frontline workloads to gain entrance to cloud accounts and expand laterally within the environment. While security teams need to secure all public cloud assets, attackers only need to find one weak link.
- The study found more than 80 percent of organizations have at least one neglected, internet-facing workload – meaning it’s running on an unsupported operating system or has remained unpatched for 180 days or more
- Meanwhile, 60 percent have at least one neglected internet-facing workload that has reached its end of life and is no longer supported by manufacturer security updates
- 49 percent of organizations have at least one publicly accessible, unpatched web server despite increased awareness of how that can result in large data breaches
Authentication and credential issues
Weak security authentication is another way that attackers breach public cloud environments. Researchers found that authentication and password storage issues are commonplace.
- Almost half the organizations (44 percent) have internet-facing workloads containing secrets and credentials that include clear-text passwords, API keys, and hashed passwords that allow lateral movement across their environment
- Meanwhile, 24 percent have at least one cloud account that doesn’t use multi-factor authentication for the super admin user; 19 percent have cloud assets accessible via non- corporate credentials
- Additionally, five percent have cloud workloads that are accessible using either a weak or leaked password
Lateral movement risk
All weak links combine to pose serious cloud security and lateral movement attack risk for any organization. Attackers also take advantage of knowing that internal servers are less protected than external internet-facing servers and that they can expand rapidly in search of critical data once inside a cloud estate.
- The security posture of internal machines is much worse than internet-facing servers, with 77 percent of organizations having at least 10 percent of their internal workloads in a neglected security state
- Additionally, six percent of internet-facing assets contain SSH keys that could be used to access adjacent systems
The past few years have seen an increase in employees using personal devices and systems to access work emails and company databases, and exchange valuable information with colleagues, clients, and vendors. These tools can help people complete their jobs but are fraught with security challenges.
The scale of this challenge increased considerably in 2020 due to the expanded use of devices to accommodate work-from-home mandates and consequent sudden surge in cybercrime.
Frost & Sullivan examined how threats and attacks exist around employees’ external systems and devices, and found that multi-factor authentication (MFA) can be easily leveraged by IT departments. It’s clear that companies can better protect themselves using tools more sophisticated than password protection.
A better user experience ensures full user adoption
“Passwords are no longer enough for businesses to secure their data. MFA has become a necessity for the modern business. However, MFA implementation and adoption can be cumbersome for IT departments and users,” explained Roberta Gamble, Partner and Vice President at Frost & Sullivan.
“Businesses need solutions that provide ease of installation and deployment, user-friendly tools and interface, and a clear method for the business to enforce usage.”