BEC attacks increased 15% quarter-over-quarter, driven by an explosion in invoice and payment fraud, Abnormal Security research reveals.
“As the industry’s only measure of BEC attack volume by industry, our quarterly BEC research is important for CISOs to prepare and stay ahead of attackers,” said Evan Reiser, CEO of Abnormal Security.
“Not only are BEC campaigns continuing to increase overall, they are rising in 75% of industries that we track. Since these attacks are targeted and sophisticated, these increases could indicate an ability for threat actors to scale that may overwhelm some businesses.”
For this research, BEC campaigns across eight major industries were tracked, including retail/consumer goods and manufacturing, technology, energy/infrastructure, services, medical, media/tv, finance and hospitality.
Growth by industry
During Q3, BEC campaign volume increased in six out of eight industries, with energy/infrastructure seeing the highest jump of 93% from Q2 to Q3. Retail/consumer goods and manufacturing, technology and media received the highest volume of attacks during the quarter.
During Q3, attackers continued to focus primarily on invoice and payment fraud, which increased 155% from Q2 to Q3. This trend was particularly notable in retail/consumer goods and manufacturing.
Threat actors continue to target invoice and payment fraud BEC attacks at finance departments, which increased by 54% on average per week from Q2 to Q3. In addition, attackers shifted tactics by increasing email attacks to group mailboxes by 212%.
- While credential-phishing COVID-19 related attacks decreased by 82%, invoice and payment fraud that continues to leverage the fear, uncertainty and doubt of the pandemic increased by 81%.
- The most impersonated brands returned to the pre-pandemic “normal,” as Zoom dropped away from the top spot, replaced by DHL and followed by Dropbox and Amazon. Rounding out the top five were iCloud and LinkedIn.
LogMeIn released a report that reveals the current state of IT in the new era of remote work. The report quantifies the impact of COVID-19 on IT roles and priorities for small to medium-sized businesses.
The study reveals the massive shift in the day-to-day work of IT professionals, and the broader impact of the transition to remote work for the majority of businesses.
The report uncovers how the budgets, priorities, and functions of IT teams at small and medium-sized businesses continue to be shaped by ongoing global upheaval and uncertainty and provides insights into how IT professionals are adapting their roles and teams to these challenges.
Virtual tasks and security concerns demand more IT time
With the onset of COVID-19, the types of tasks that filled a typical IT team member’s day changed significantly. The research found that 67 percent of respondents said they spend more time on virtual tasks like team web meetings, remotely accessing employee devices (66 percent) and customer web meetings (52 percent).
Security also gained increased focus, with 54 percent spending more time managing IT security threats and 54 percent developing new security protocols. 47 percent of IT professionals are spending 5 to 8 hours per day on IT security, compared to 35% in 2019.
The increased complexities of BYOD and BYOA (Bring-Your-Own-Devices and Access) work environments combined with advancements in cyberattacks have increasingly monopolized the focus of IT professionals.
IT is most worried about a breach
The top IT security concerns continue to be data breaches (cloud, internal, and external), malware, employee behavior, and ransomware. With cloud technology and adoption skyrocketing over the years, fear of a cloud data security breach has increased significantly just in the past two years, with 40% of IT professionals expressing concern in 2018 and 53% citing it as a top security concern in 2020.
Another higher priority concern in 2020 compared to previous years is ‘Rapidly evolving business technology practices’ with 29 percent of IT professionals stating it’s a top security concern in 2020, compared to only 20 percent in 2019.
Lack of budget is the greatest barrier to keeping up with trends in IT
35 percent of IT professionals agree that a lack of budget is the biggest challenge their company is facing in trying to keep up with IT trends. IT training, lack of IT staff, lack of control over a remote workforce, and IT staff resistance to change are all seen as the most common reasons IT teams are struggling to adapt to changes in their field.
With limited budget, IT teams must implement solutions that enable them to do more with less and prioritize implementing tools with security, automation, and monitoring functionality.
Software facilitating remote collaboration and management proved most valuable to IT
Given that it was no longer possible to stop by an employee’s desk to address any issues, 38 percent of IT teams prioritized remote access software first during the COVID-19 pandemic.
With employees working from home, having a way to collaborate with colleagues became mission-critical, so it’s not surprising that one third of IT respondents prioritized meeting and communications software.
“This data shows that the pandemic has led to improved training for IT and employees, ensuring all employees have the appropriate hardware and software, and even installed multifactor authentication for improved security.”
The number of records exposed has increased to a staggering 36 billion. There were 2,935 publicly reported breaches in the first three quarters of 2020, with the three months of Q3 adding an additional 8.3 billion records to what was already the “worst year on record,” Risk Based Security reveals.
“Breach disclosures continue to be well below the high water mark established just last year despite other research indicating the number of attacks are on the rise. How do we square these two competing views into the digital threat landscape?”
Factors contributing to the decline in publicly reported breaches
The report explores numerous factors such as how media coverage may be a factor contributing to the decline in publicly reported breaches. In addition, the increase of ransomware attacks may also have a part to play.
“We believe that the pivot by malicious actors to more lucrative ransomware attacks is another factor,” Goddijn commented.
“While many of these attacks are now clearly breach events, the nature of the data compromised can give some victim organizations a reprieve from reporting the incident to regulators and the public.
“After all, while the compromised data may be sensitive to the target organization, unless it contains a sufficient amount of personal data to trigger a notification obligation the event can go unreported.”
The Risk Based Security report covers the data breaches reported between January 1, 2020 and September 30, 2020. In addition to the latest breach data research, the report also dissects alarming trends involving the coming November election, where several US voter databases have been shared and discussed on both Russian and English speaking hacking forums.
Federal IT leaders across the country voiced the importance of network visibility in managing and securing their agencies’ increasingly complex and hybrid networks, according to Riverbed.
Of 200 participating federal government IT decision makers and influencers, 90 percent consider their networks to be moderately-to-highly complex, and 32 percent say that increasing network complexity is the greatest challenge an IT professional without visibility faces in their agency when managing the network.
Driving this network complexity are Cloud First and Cloud Smart initiatives that make it an imperative for federal IT to modernize its infrastructure with cloud transformation and “as-a-service” adoption.
More than 25 percent of respondents are still in the planning stages of their priority modernization projects, though 87 percent of survey respondents recognize that network visibility is a strong or moderate enabler of cloud infrastructure.
Network visibility can help expedite the evaluation process to determine what goes onto an agency’s cloud and what data and apps stay on-prem; it also allows clearer, ongoing management across the networks to enable smooth transitions to cloud, multi-cloud and hybrid infrastructures.
Accelerated move to cloud
The COVID-19 has further accelerated modernization and cloud adoption to support the massive shift of the federal workforce to telework – a recent Market Connections study indicates that 90 percent of federal employees are currently teleworking and that 86 percent expect to continue to do so at least part-time after the pandemic ends.
The rapid adoption of cloud-based services and solutions and an explosion of new endpoints accessing agency networks during the pandemic generated an even greater need for visibility into the who, what, when and where of traffic. In fact, 81 percent of survey respondents noted that the increasing use of telework accelerated their agency’s use and deployment of network visibility solutions, with 25 percent responding “greatly.”
“The accelerated move to cloud was necessary because the majority of federal staff were no longer on-prem, creating significant potential for disruption to citizen services and mission delivery,” said Marlin McFate, public sector CTO at Riverbed.
“This basically took IT teams from being able to see, to being blind. All of their users were now outside of their protected environments, and they no longer had control over the internet connections, the networks employees were logging on from or who or what else had access to those networks. To be able to securely maintain networks and manage end-user experience, you have to have greater visibility.”
Visibility drives security
Lack of visibility into agency networks and the proliferation of apps and endpoints designed to improve productivity and collaboration expands the potential attack surface for cyberthreats.
Ninety-three percent of respondents believe that greater network visibility facilitates greater network security and 96 percent believe network visibility is moderately or highly valuable in assuring secure infrastructure.
Further, respondents ranked cybersecurity as their agency’s number one priority that can be improved through better network visibility, and automated threat detection was identified as the most important feature of a network visibility solution (24 percent), followed by advanced reporting features (14 percent), and automated alerting (13 percent).
“Network visibility is the foundation of cybersecurity and federal agencies have to know what’s on their network so they can rapidly detect and remediate malicious actors. And while automation enablement calls for an upfront time investment, it can significantly improve response time not only for cyber threat detection but also network issues that can hit employee productivity,” concluded McFate.
43% of C-suite executives and 12% of small business owners (SBOs) have experienced a data breach, according to Shred-it.
While businesses are getting better at protecting their customers’ personal and sensitive information, their focus on security training and protocols has declined in the last year. This decline could pose issues for businesses, as 83% of consumers say they prefer to do business with companies who prioritize protecting their physical and digital data.
The findings reinforce the need for business owners to have data protection policies in place as threats to data security, both physical (including paper documents, laptop computers or external hard drives) and digital (including malware, ransomware and phishing scams), have outpaced efforts and investments to combat them.
The report, which was completed prior to COVID-19, also exposes that more focus is needed around information security in the home, where C-suites and SBOs feel the risk of a data breach is higher.
While advancements in technology have allowed businesses to move their information to the cloud, only 7% of C-suites and 18% of SBOs operate in a paperless environment. Businesses still consume vast amounts of paper, dispelling the myth of offices going digital and signaling a need for oversight of physical information and data security.
Having policies in place can mitigate the risk of physical security breaches
C-suites and SBOs indicated external threats from vendors or contractors (25% C-suites; 18% SBOs) and physical loss or theft of sensitive information (22% C-suites, 19% SBOs) are the top information security threats facing their business.
Yet, the number of organizations with a known and understood policy for storing and disposing of confidential paper documents adhered to by all employees has declined 13% for C-suites (73% in 2019 to 60% in 2020) and 11% for SBOs (57% in 2019 to 46% in 2020).
In addition, 49% of SBOs have no policy in place for disposing of confidential information on end-of-life electronic devices.
While the work-from-home trend has risen over the years, the COVID-19 pandemic abruptly launched employees into work-from-home status, many without supporting policies.
77% of C-suites and 53% of SBOs had employees who regularly or periodically work off-site. Despite this trend, 53% of C-suites and 41% of SBOs have remote work policies in place that are strictly adhered to by employees working remotely (down 18% from 71% in 2019 for C-suites; down 8% from 49% in 2019 for SBOs).
“As we adjust to our new normal in the workplace, or at home, it’s crucial that policies are adapted to align with these changes and protect sensitive information,” said Cindy Miller, president and CEO, Stericycle.
“As information security threats grow, it’s more important than ever that we help businesses and communities protect valuable documents and data from the risks of an information breach.”
Better training on security procedures and policies is needed
When it comes to training, 24% of C-suites and 54% of SBOs reported having no regular employee training on information security procedures or policies.
Additionally, the number of organizations that regularly train employees on how to identify common cyber-attack tactics, such as phishing, ransomware or other malicious software, declined 6% for C-suites (from 88% in 2019 to 82% in 2020) and 7% for SBOs (from 52% in 2019 to 45% in 2020).
“As a society, we are facing new information security challenges every day, from the rise of remote working to increased consumer concern,” said Michael Borromeo, VP of data protection, Stericycle.
“To protect businesses now and for the long haul, it’s instrumental that leaders reevaluate information security training and protocols to adjust to our changing world and maintain consumer trust.”
Businesses deal with data security and declining consumer trust
While many U.S. businesses feel they are getting better at protecting sensitive information, declining consumer trust and increased expectations may impact the bottom line.
- 86% of consumers are concerned that private, personal information about them is present on the internet.
- 24% of consumers would stop doing business with a company if their personal information was compromised in a data breach. Beyond losing their loyalty, consumers would lose trust in the business (31%) and demand to know what the business is doing to prevent future breaches (31%).
- 38% consumers trust that all physical and digital data breaches are properly disclosed to consumers (up 4% from 34% in 2019).
Businesses are reducing focus on policies for disposing of confidential information despite physical theft and vendor threats being top risks.
- While 60% of C-suites and 46% of SBOs have a known and understood policy for storing and disposing of confidential paper documents, strict employee adherence to these policies has declined from 2019. Down 13% from 73% in 2019 for C-suites and down 11% from 57% in 2019 for SBOs.
- Additionally, 10% of C-suites and 38% of SBOs admit they have no policies in place for disposing of confidential paper documents, up 4% for C-suites (from 10% in 2019) and 8% for SBOs (from 30% in 2019).
Remote work has increased over the years, but information security policies are lacking.
- Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, 45% of small businesses did not have a policy for storing and disposing of confidential information when employees work off-site from the office.
- A secondary study found that 75% of employees own a home printer that they use to print work documents and 43% print work-related documents weekly.
Positive Technologies performed instrumental scanning of the network perimeter of selected corporate information systems. A total of 3,514 hosts were scanned, including network devices, servers, and workstations.
The results show the presence of high-risk vulnerabilities at most companies. However, half of these vulnerabilities can be eliminated by installing the latest software updates.
The research shows high-risk vulnerabilities at 84% of companies across finance, manufacturing, IT, retail, government, telecoms and advertising. One or more hosts with a high-risk vulnerability having a publicly available exploit are present at 58% of companies.
Publicly available exploits exist for 10% of the vulnerabilities found, which means attackers can exploit them even if they don’t have professional programming skills or experience in reverse engineering. However, half of the vulnerabilities can be eliminated by installing the latest software updates.
The detected vulnerabilities are caused by the absence of recent software updates, outdated algorithms and protocols, configuration flaws, mistakes in web application code, and accounts with weak and default passwords.
Vulnerabilities can be fixed by installing the latest software versions
As part of the automated security assessment of the network perimeter, 47% of detected vulnerabilities can be fixed by installing the latest software versions.
All companies had problems with keeping software up to date. At 42% of them, PT found software for which the developer had announced the end of life and stopped releasing security updates. The oldest vulnerability found in automated analysis was 16 years old.
Analysis revealed remote access and administration interfaces, such as Secure Shell (SSH), Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), and Network Virtual Terminal Protocol (Internet) TELNET. These interfaces allow any external attacker to conduct bruteforce attacks.
Attackers can bruteforce weak passwords in a matter of minutes and then obtain access to network equipment with the privileges of the corresponding user before proceeding to develop the attack further.
Ekaterina Kilyusheva, Head of Information Security Analytics Research Group of Positive Technologies said: “Network perimeters of most tested corporate information systems remain extremely vulnerable to external attacks.
“Our automated security assessment proved that all companies have network services available for connection on their network perimeter, allowing hackers to exploit software vulnerabilities and bruteforce credentials to these services.
Minimizing the number of services on the network perimeter is recommended
Kilyusheva continued: “At most of the companies, experts found accessible web services, remote administration interfaces, and email and file services on the network perimeter. Most companies also had external-facing resources with arbitrary code execution or privilege escalation vulnerabilities.
“With maximum privileges, attackers can edit and delete any information on the host, which creates a risk of DoS attacks. On web servers, these vulnerabilities may also lead to defacement, unauthorized database access, and attacks on clients. In addition, attackers can pivot to target other hosts on the network.
“We recommend minimizing the number of services on the network perimeter and making sure that accessible interfaces truly need to be available from the Internet. If this is the case, it is recommended to ensure that they are configured securely, and businesses install updates to patch any known vulnerabilities.
“Vulnerability management is a complex task that requires proper instrumental solutions,” Kilyusheva added. “With modern security analysis tools, companies can automate resource inventories and vulnerability searches, and also assess security policy compliance across the entire infrastructure. Automated scanning is only the first step toward achieving an acceptable level of security. To get a complete picture, it is vital to combine automated scanning with penetration testing. Subsequent steps should include verification, triage, and remediation of risks and their causes.”
Vulnerability management (VM) technology addresses the threat landscape, which is in a constant state of flux. The wider dispersal of endpoints across private and public cloud environments increases the points of vulnerabilities in an enterprise network, intensifying the demand for VM solutions that make endpoints easier to track, verify, and secure.
To prevent attacks and damage to a business, VM providers employ various means of identifying, prioritizing, communicating, and suggesting possible responses to the risks companies face in their networked business environments.
The leading VM platforms provide a complete picture of a client’s security posture, correlating the client organization’s assets, classifying their importance with the vulnerabilities identified in the scan, and offering information for remediation.
A multilayered defense
Frost & Sullivan’s latest thought leadership paper analyzes the threat landscape and the role of VM in addressing the security concerns of the entire enterprise. It analyzes end-user willingness to invest in VM platforms that help provide a holistic cybersecurity approach in various areas, including vulnerability prioritization, automated workflows, and third-party integration.
“This aids a multilayered defense, which has proven to be superior to discrete technologies working separately in network defense. VM platforms that allow IT departments to conduct continual vulnerability assessments are emerging as one of the top five solutions for organizations concerned about system vulnerabilities as part of their security maturity improvement initiatives.”
According to the research, two out of every three cyberattacks in the United States and three out of every four in Europe are categorized as severe by the organizations affected by them.
Attacks on IoT devices continue to rise at an alarming rate due to poor security protections and cybercriminals use of automated tools to exploit these vulnerabilities, according to Nokia.
IoT devices most infected
The report found that internet-connected, or IoT, devices now make up roughly 33% of infected devices, up from about 16% in 2019. The report’s findings are based on data aggregated from monitoring network traffic on more than 150 million devices globally.
Adoption of IoT devices, from smart home security monitoring systems to drones and medical devices, is expected to continue growing as consumers and enterprises move to take advantage of the high bandwidth, ultra-low latency, and fundamentally new networking capabilities that 5G mobile networks enable, according to the report.
The rate of success in infecting IoT devices depends on the visibility of the devices to the internet, according to the report. In networks where devices are routinely assigned public facing internet IP addresses, a high infection rate is seen.
In networks where carrier-grade Network Address Translation is used, the infection rate is considerably reduced, because the vulnerable devices are not visible to network scanning.
Cybercriminals taking advantage of the pandemic
The report also reveals there is no let up in cybercriminals using the COVID-19 pandemic to try to steal personal data through a variety of types of malware. One in particular is disguised as a Coronavirus Map application – mimicking the legitimate and authoritative Coronavirus Map issued by Johns Hopkins University – to take advantage of the public’s demand for accurate information about COVID-19 infections, deaths and transmissions.
But the bogus application is used to plant malware on victims’ computers to exploit personal data. “Cybercriminals are playing on people’s fears and are seeing this situation as an opportunity to promote their agendas,” the report says. The report urges the public to install applications only from trusted app stores, like Google and Apple.
Bhaskar Gorti, President and Chief Digital Officer, Nokia, said: “The sweeping changes that are taking place in the 5G ecosystem, with even more 5G networks being deployed around the world as we move to 2021, open ample opportunities for malicious actors to take advantage of vulnerabilities in IoT devices.
“This report reinforces not only the critical need for consumers and enterprises to step up their own cyber protection practices, but for IoT device producers to do the same.”
Organizations are often forced to make critical security decisions based on threat data that is not accurate, relevant and fresh, a Neustar report reveals.
Just 60% of cybersecurity professionals surveyed indicate that the threat data they receive is both timely and actionable, and only 29% say the data they receive is both extremely accurate and relevant to the threats their organization is facing at that moment.
Few orgs basing decisions on near real-time data
With regard to the timeliness of threat data, only 27% of organizations are able to base their security decisions on near real-time data, while 25% say they receive updates hourly and another 24% receive updates several times per day.
“With the pandemic exacerbating the sheer volume of threats and the nature of remote workforces creating a broader range of vulnerabilities, it is more critical than ever that organizations have access to actionable, contextualized, near real-time threat data to power the network and application security tools they use to detect and block malicious actors,” said Rodney Joffe, Senior VP, Security CTO, Fellow at Neustar.
“A timely, actionable and highly relevant security threat data feed can help deliver curated insights to security teams, allowing them to better identify and mitigate risks such as malicious domain generation algorithms, suspicious DNS tunneling attempts, sudden activity by domains with little or no history, and hijacked or spoofed domains.”
Greatest concerns for security pros
According to the report, 37% of organizations state that they have been the victim of a successful domain spoofing attempt or domain hacking attempt (31%) within the last 12 months.
Findings from the latest NISC research also highlighted a 12.4-point year-on-year increase in the International Cyber Benchmarks Index. Calculated based on the changing level of threats and impact of cyberattacks, the index has maintained an upward trend since May 2017.
During July and August 2020, system compromise and distributed denial-of-service attacks (both 21%) were ranked as the greatest concerns for security professionals, followed by ransomware (20%) and theft of intellectual property (17%).
During this period, targeted hacking (63%) was most likely to be perceived as an increasing threat to organizations, followed by ransomware and DDoS attacks (both 62%). In this round of the survey, 72% of participating enterprises indicated that they had been on the receiving end of a DDoS attack at some point, compared to an average of 52% over the 20 survey rounds.
The machine identity attack surface is exploding, with a rapid increase in all types of machine identity-related security events in 2018 and 2019, according to Venafi. For example, the number of reported machine identity-related cyberattacks grew by over 400% during this two-year period.
“We have seen machine use skyrocket in organizations over the last five years, but many businesses still focus their security controls primarily on human identity management,” said Kevin Bocek, VP of security strategy and threat intelligence at Venafi.
“Digital transformation initiatives are in jeopardy because attackers are able to exploit wide gaps in machine identity management strategies. The COVID-19 pandemic is driving faster adoption of cloud, hybrid and microservices architectures, but protecting machine identities for these projects are often an afterthought.
“The only way to mitigate these risks is to build comprehensive machine identity management programs that are as comprehensive as customer, partner and employee identity and access management strategies.”
- Between 2015 and 2019, the number of reported cyberattacks that used machine identities grew by more than 700%, with this amount increasing by 433% between the years 2018 and 2019 alone.
- From 2015 to 2019, the number of vulnerabilities involving machine identities grew by 260%, increasing by 125% between 2018 and 2019.
- The use of commodity malware that abuses machine identities doubled between the years 2018 and 2019 and grew 300% over the five years leading up to 2019.
- Between 2015 and 2019, the number of reported advanced persistent threats (APTs) that used machine identities grew by 400%. Reports of these attacks increased by 150% between 2018 and 2019.
“As our use of cloud, hybrid, open source and microservices use increases, there are many more machine identities on enterprise networks—and this rising number correlates with the accelerated number of threats,” said Yana Blachman, threat intelligence researcher at Venafi.
“As a result, every organization’s machine identity attack surface is getting much bigger. Although many threats or security incidents frequently involve a machine identity component, too often these details do not receive enough attention and aren’t highlighted in public reports.
“This lack of focus on machine identities in cyber security reporting has led to a lack of data and focus on this crucial area of security. As a result, the trends we are seeing in this report are likely just the tip of the iceberg.”
Akamai published a report detailing criminal activity targeting the retail, travel, and hospitality industries with attacks of all types and sizes between July 2018 and June 2020. The report also includes numerous examples of criminal ads from the darknet illustrating how they cash in on the results from successful attacks and the corresponding data theft.
“This is why credential stuffing has become so popular over the past few years. These days, retail and loyalty profiles contain a smorgasbord of personal information, and in some cases financial information too. All of this data can be collected, sold, and traded or even compiled for extensive profiles that can later be used for crimes such as identity theft.”
Recirculating old credential lists to identify new vulnerable accounts
During the COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns in Q1 2020, criminals took advantage of the worldwide situation and circulated password combination lists, targeting each of the commerce industries featured in the report.
It was during this time that criminals started recirculating old credential lists in an effort to identify new vulnerable accounts, leading to a significant uptick in criminal inventory and sales related to loyalty programs.
Between July 2018 and June 2020, more than 100 billion credential stuffing attacks ere observed in total. In the commerce category – comprising the retail, travel, and hospitality industries – there were 63,828,642,449 recorded. More than 90% of the attacks in the commerce category targeted the retail industry.
Credential stuffing isn’t the only way that criminals target the retail, travel, and hospitality industries. They target organizations in these industries at the source using SQL Injection (SQLi) and Local File Inclusion (LFI) attacks.
Between July 2018 and June 2020, 4,375,711,860 web attacks against retail, travel, and hospitality were observed, accounting for 41% of the overall attack volume across all industries. Within this data set, 83% of those web attacks targeted the retail sector alone.
SQLi attacks are an evident favorite among criminals, accounting for just under 79% of the total web application attacks against retail, travel, and hospitality.
The holiday shopping season altered by the pandemic
As the global economy prepares for a holiday shopping season, it does so in an environment that has changed radically due to the pandemic. Consumers will not be standing outside of brick and mortar stores waiting for the latest deals in the same way they have in the past. They’re going to log-in, collect their reward points, and maybe use loyalty programs to gain some discounts or other perks just for being a member.
Considering everything that goes into a successful loyalty program, and the information people need to provide in order to take part, the criminals have everything they need to get started in a number of crime-related ventures, from account takeovers, to straight-up identity theft. So, while an individual’s loyalty to a merchant, airline, or hotel chain might not literally be for sale, there’s a good chance the account associated with such programs might be.
“All businesses need to adapt to external events, whether it’s a pandemic, a competitor, or an active and intelligent attacker,” Ragan concluded.
“Some of the top loyalty programs targeted require nothing more than a mobile number and a numeric password, while others rely on easily obtained information as a means of authentication. There is an urgent need for better identity controls and countermeasures to prevent attacks against APIs and server resources.”
The cybersecurity challenges of the global pandemic are now colliding with the 2020 U.S. presidential election resulting in a surge of cybercrime, VMware research reveals.
Attacks growing increasingly sophisticated and destructive
As eCrime groups grow more powerful, these attacks have grown increasingly sophisticated and destructive – respondents reported that 82 percent of attacks now involve instances of counter incident response (IR), and 55 percent involve island hopping, where an attacker infiltrates an organization’s network to launch attacks on others within the supply chain.
“The rapid shift to a remote world combined with the power and scale of the dark web has fueled the expansion of eCrime groups. And now ahead of the election, we are at cybersecurity tipping point, cybercriminals have become dramatically more sophisticated and punitive focused on destructive attacks.”
Data for the report is based on an online survey of eighty-three IR and cybersecurity professionals from around the world in September 2020.
Incidents of counter IR are at an all-time high, occurring in 82% of IR engagements
Suggesting the prevalence of increasingly sophisticated, often nation-state attackers, who have the resources and cyber savvy to colonize victims’ networks. Destructive attacks, which are often the final stage of counter IR have also surged, with respondents estimating victims experience them 54% of the time.
55% of cyberattacks target the victim’s digital infrastructure for the purpose of island hopping
The pandemic has left organizations increasingly vulnerable to such attacks as their employees shift to remote work – and less secure home networks and devices.
Custom malware is now being used in 50% of attacks reported by respondents
This demonstrates the scale of the dark web, where such malware and malware services can be purchased to empower traditional criminals, spies and terrorists, many of whom do not have the sophisticated resources to execute these attacks.
As we approach the 2020 presidential election, cybercrime remains a top concern
Drawing upon their security expertise – and in line with recent advisories from Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) – 73% of respondents believe there will be foreign influence on the 2020 U.S. presidential election, and 60% believe it will be influenced by a cyberattack.
SOCs across the globe are most concerned with advanced threat detection and are increasingly looking to next-gen automation tools like AI and ML technologies to proactively safeguard the enterprise, Micro Focus reveals.
Growing deployment of next-gen tools and capabilities
The report’s findings show that over 93 percent of respondents employ AI and ML technologies with the leading goal of improving advanced threat detection capabilities, and that over 92 percent of respondents expect to use or acquire some form of automation tool within the next 12 months.
These findings indicate that as SOCs continue to mature, they will deploy next-gen tools and capabilities at an unprecedented rate to address gaps in security.
“The odds are stacked against today’s SOCs: more data, more sophisticated attacks, and larger surface areas to monitor. However, when properly implemented, AI technologies such as unsupervised machine learning, are helping to fuel next-generation security operations, as evidenced by this year’s report,” said Stephan Jou, CTO Interset at Micro Focus.
“We’re observing more and more enterprises discovering that AI and ML can be remarkably effective and augment advanced threat detection and response capabilities, thereby accelerating the ability of SecOps teams to better protect the enterprise.”
Organizations relying on the MITRE ATT&K framework
As the volume of threats rise, the report finds that 90 percent of organizations are relying on the MITRE ATT&K framework as a tool for understanding attack techniques, and that the most common reason for relying on the knowledge base of adversary tactics is for detecting advanced threats.
Further, the scale of technology needed to secure today’s digital assets means SOC teams are relying more heavily on tools to effectively do their jobs.
With so many responsibilities, the report found that SecOps teams are using numerous tools to help secure critical information, with organizations widely using 11 common types of security operations tools and with each tool expected to exceed 80% adoption in 2021.
- COVID-19: During the pandemic, security operations teams have faced many challenges. The biggest has been the increased volume of cyberthreats and security incidents (45 percent globally), followed by higher risks due to workforce usage of unmanaged devices (40 percent globally).
- Most severe SOC challenges: Approximately 1 in 3 respondents cite the two most severe challenges for the SOC team as prioritizing security incidents and monitoring security across a growing attack surface.
- Cloud journeys: Over 96 percent of organizations use the cloud for IT security operations, and on average nearly two-thirds of their IT security operations software and services are already deployed in the cloud.
Cybercriminals are targeting vulnerabilities created by the pandemic-driven worldwide transition to remote work, according to Secureworks.
The report is based on hundreds of incidents the company’s IR team has responded to since the start of the pandemic.
Threat level is unchanged
While initial news reports predicted a sharp uptick in cyber threats after the pandemic took hold, data on confirmed security incidents and genuine threats to customers show the threat level is largely unchanged. Instead, major changes in organizational and IT infrastructure to support remote work created new vulnerabilities for threat actors to exploit.
The sudden switch to remote work and increased use of cloud services and personal devices significantly expanded the attack surface for many organizations. Facing an urgent need for business continuity, many companies did not have time to put all the necessary protocols, processes and controls in place, making it difficult for security teams to respond to incidents.
Threat actors—including nation-states and financially-motivated cyber criminals—are exploiting these vulnerabilities with malware, phishing, and other social engineering tactics to take advantage of victims for their own gain. One in four attacks are now ransomware related—up from 1 in 10 in 2018—and new COVID-19 phishing attacks include stimulus check fraud.
Additionally, healthcare, pharmaceutical and government organizations and information related to vaccines and pandemic response are attack targets.
The issue with dispersed workforces
Barry Hensley, Chief Threat Intelligence Officer, Secureworks said: “Against a continuing threat of enterprise-wide disruption from ransomware, business email compromise and nation-state intrusions, security teams have faced growing challenges including increasingly dispersed workforces, issues arising from the rapid implementation of remote working with insufficient consideration to security implications, and the inevitable reduced focus on security from businesses adjusting to a changing world.”
The importance of privacy and data protection is a critical issue for organizations as it transcends beyond legal departments to the forefront of an organization’s strategic priorities.
A FairWarning research, based on survey results from more than 550 global privacy and data protection, IT, and compliance professionals outlines the characteristics and behaviors of advanced privacy and data protection teams.
By examining the trends of privacy adoption and maturity across industries, the research uncovers adjustments that security and privacy leaders need to make to better protect their organization’s data.
The prevalence of data and privacy attacks
Insights from the research reinforce the importance of privacy and data protection as 67% of responding organizations documented at least one privacy incident within the past three years, and over 24% of those experienced 30 or more.
Additionally, 50% of all respondents reported at least one data breach in the last three years, with 10% reporting 30 or more.
Overall immaturity of privacy programs
Despite increased regulations, breaches and privacy incidents, organizations have not rapidly accelerated the advancement of their privacy programs as 44% responded they are in the early stages of adoption and 28% are in middle stages.
Healthcare and software rise to the top
Despite an overall lack of maturity across industries, healthcare and software organizations reflect more maturity in their privacy programs, as compared to insurance, banking, government, consulting services, education institutions and academia.
Harnessing the power of data and privacy programs
Respondents understand the significant benefits of a mature privacy program as organizations experience greater gains across every area measured including: increased employee privacy awareness, mitigating data breaches, greater consumer trust, reduced privacy complaints, quality and innovation, competitive advantage, and operational efficiency.
Of note, more mature companies believe they experience the largest gain in reducing privacy complaints (30.3% higher than early stage respondents).
Attributes and habits of mature privacy and data protection programs
Companies with more mature privacy programs are more likely to have C-Suite privacy and security roles within their organization than those in the mid- to early-stages of privacy program development.
Additionally, 88.2% of advanced stage organizations know where most or all of their personally identifiable information/personal health information is located, compared to 69.5% of early stage respondents.
Importance of automated tools to monitor user activity
Insights reveal a clear distinction between the maturity levels of privacy programs and related benefits of automated tools as 54% of respondents with more mature programs have implemented this type of technology compared with only 28.1% in early stage development.
Automated tools enable organizations to monitor all user activity in applications and efficiently identify anomalous activity that signals a breach or privacy violation.
“It is exciting to see healthcare at the top when it comes to privacy maturity. However, as we dig deeper into the data, we find that 37% of respondents with 30 or more breaches are from healthcare, indicating that there is still more work to be done.
“This study highlights useful guidance on steps all organizations can take regardless of industry or size to advance their program and ensure they are at the forefront of privacy and data protection.”
“As the research has demonstrated, it is imperative that security and privacy professionals recognize the importance of implementing privacy and data protection programs to not only reduce privacy complaints and data breaches, but increase operational efficiency.”
With both security budgets and talent pools negatively affected by the ongoing pandemic, state and local governments are struggling to cope with the constant wave of cyber threats more than ever before, a Deloitte study reveals.
The study is based on responses from 51 U.S. state and territory enterprise-level CISOs.
- COVID-19 has challenged continuity and amplified gaps in budget, talent and threats, and the need for partnerships.
- Collaboration with local governments and public higher education is critical to managing increasingly complex cyber risk within state borders.
- CISOs need a centralized structure to position cyber in a way that improves agility, effectiveness and efficiencies.
The report also details focus areas for states during the COVID-19 pandemic. While the pandemic has highlighted the resilience of public sector cyber leaders, it has also called attention to long-standing challenges facing state IT and cybersecurity organizations such as securing adequate budgets and talent, and coordinating consistent security implementation across agencies.
Remote work creating new opportunities for cyber threats
These challenges were exacerbated by the abrupt shift to remote work spurred by the pandemic. According to the study:
- Before the pandemic, 52% of respondents said less than 5% of staff worked remotely.
- During the pandemic, 35 states have had more than half of employees working remotely; nine states have had more than 90% remote workers.
“The last six months have created new opportunities for cyber threats and amplified existing cybersecurity challenges for state governments,” said Meredith Ward, director of policy and research at NASCIO.
“The budget and talent challenges experienced in recent years have only grown, and CISOs are now also faced with an acceleration of strategic initiatives to address threats associated with the pandemic.”
“However, continuing challenges with resources beset state CISOs/CIOs. This is evident when comparing the much higher levels of budget that federal agencies and other industries like financial services receive to fight cyber threats.”
The need for digital modernization amplified by the pandemic
State governments’ longstanding need for digital modernization has only been amplified by the pandemic, along with the essential role that cybersecurity needs to play in the discussion. Key takeaways from the 2020 study include:
- Fewer than 40% of states reported having a dedicated budget line item for cybersecurity.
- Half of states still allocate less than 3% of their total information technology budget on cybersecurity.
- CISOs identified financial fraud as three times greater of a threat as they did in 2018.
- Overall, respondents said they believe the probability of a security breach is higher in the next 12 months, compared to responses to the same question in the 2018 study.
- Only 27% of states provide cybersecurity training to local governments and public education entities.
- Only 28% of states reported that they had collaborated extensively with local governments as part of their state’s security program during the past year, with 65% reporting limited collaboration.
Vectra released its report on Microsoft Office 365, which highlights the use of Office 365 in enterprise cyberattacks. The report explains how cybercriminals use built-in Office 365 services in their attacks.
Attacks that target software-as-a-service (SaaS) user accounts are one of the fastest-growing and most prevalent problems for organizations, even before COVID-19 forced the vast and rapid shift to remote work.
Microsoft dominating the productivity space
With many organizations increasing their cloud software usage, Microsoft has dominated the productivity space, with more than 250 million active users each month. Office 365 is the foundation of enterprise data sharing, storage, and communication for many of those users, making it an incredibly rich treasure trove for attackers.
“Within the new work-from-home paradigm, user account takeover in Office 365 is the most effective way for an attacker to move laterally inside an organization’s network.” said Chris Morales, head of security analytics at Vectra.
“We expect this trend to magnify in the months ahead. Attackers will continue to exploit human behaviours, social engineering, and identity theft to establish a foothold and to steal data in every type of organization.”
Cost of account takeovers
Even with the increasing adoption of security postures to protect user accounts such as multifactor authentication (MFA), 40 percent of organizations still suffer from Office 365 breaches, leading to massive financial and reputational losses.
In a recent study, Forrester Research put the cost of account takeovers at $6.5 billion to $7 billion in annual losses across multiple industries.
Highlights from the report
- 96 percent of customers sampled exhibited lateral movement behaviours
- 71 percent of customers sampled exhibited suspicious Office 365 Power Automate behaviours
- 56 percent of customers sampled exhibited suspicious Office 365 eDiscovery behaviours
The report is based on the participation of 4 million Microsoft Office 365 accounts monitored by Vectra researchers from June-August 2020.
Organizations are rapidly increasing the size, scope and scale of their data protection infrastructure, reflected in dramatic rises in adoption of public key infrastructure (PKI) across enterprises worldwide, according to Entrust research.
PKI is at the core of nearly every IT infrastructure, enabling security for critical digital initiatives such as cloud, mobile device deployment, identities and the IoT.
The annual study is based on feedback from more than 1,900 IT security professionals in 17 countries.
IoT, authentication and cloud, top drivers in PKI usage growth
As organizations become more dependent on digital information and face increasingly sophisticated cyberattacks, they rely on PKI to control access to data and ascertain the identities of people, systems and devices on a mass scale.
IoT is the fastest growing trend driving PKI application deployment, up 26 percent over the past five years to 47 percent in 2020, with cloud-based services the second highest driver cited by 44 percent of respondents.
PKI usage surging for cloud and authentication use cases
TLS/SSL certificates for public-facing websites and services are the most often cited use case for PKI credentials (84 percent of respondents).
Public cloud-based applications saw the fastest year-over-year growth, cited by 82 percent, up 27 percent from 2019, followed by enterprise user authentication by 70 percent of respondents, an increase of 19 percent over 2019. All underscore the critical need of PKI in supporting core enterprise applications.
The average number of certificates an organization needs to manage grew 43 percent in the 2020 study over the previous year, from 39,197 to 56,192 certificates, highlighting a pivotal requirement for enterprise certificate management.
The rise is likely driven by the industry transition to shorter certificate validity periods, and the sharp growth in cloud and enterprise user authentication use cases.
Challenges, change and uncertainty
The study found that IT security professionals are confronting new challenges to enabling applications to use PKI. 52 percent cited lack of visibility of an existing PKI’s security capabilities as their top challenge, an increase of 16 percent over the 2019 study.
This issue underscores the lack of cybersecurity expertise available within even the most well-resourced organizations, and the need for PKI specialists who can create custom enterprise roadmaps based on security and operational best practices.
Respondents also cited inability to change legacy applications and the inability of their existing PKIs to support new applications as critical challenges – both at 51 percent.
When it comes to deploying and managing a PKI, IT security professionals are most challenged by organizational issues such as no clear ownership, insufficient skills and insufficient resources.
PKI deployment figures from the study clearly indicate a trend toward more diversified approaches, with as-a-service offerings even becoming more prevalent than on-premise offerings in some countries.
The two greatest areas of PKI change and uncertainty come from new applications such as IoT (52 percent of respondents) and external mandates and standards (49 percent). The regulatory environment is also increasingly driving deployment of applications that use PKI, cited by 24 percent of respondents.
Security practices have not kept pace with growth
In the next two years, an estimated average of 41 percent of IoT devices will rely primarily on digital certificates for identification and authentication. Encryption for IoT devices, platforms and data repositories, while growing, is at just 33 percent – a potential exposure point for sensitive data.
Respondents cited several threats to IoT security, including altering the function of IoT devices through malware or other attacks (68 percent) and remote control of a device by an unauthorized user (54 percent).
However, respondents rated controls relevant to malware protection – like securely delivering patches and updates to IoT devices – last on a list of the five most important IoT security capabilities.
The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recommends that cryptographic modules for certificate authorities (CAs), key recovery servers and OCSP responders should be validated to FIPS 140-2 level 3 or higher.
Thirty-nine percent of respondents in this study use hardware security modules (HSMs) to secure their PKIs, most often to manage the private keys for their root, issuing, or policy CAs. Yet only 12 percent of respondents indicate the use of HSMs in their OSCP installations, demonstrating a significant gap between best practices and observed practices.
“PKI underpins the security of both the business and the consumer world, from digitally signing transactions and applications to prove the source as well as integrity, to supporting the authentication of smart phones, games consoles, citizen passports, mass transit ticketing and mobile banking, says Larry Ponemon, founder of the Ponemon Institute.
“The 2020 Global PKI and IoT Trends Study shows a surge in the use of PKI credentials for cloud-based applications and enterprise user authentication, underscoring the criticality of PKI in supporting core enterprise applications.”
“We are seeing increasing reliance on PKI juxtaposed with struggles by internal teams to adapt it to new market needs — driving changes to traditional PKI deployment models and methods,” says John Grimm, vice president strategy for digital solutions at Entrust.
“In newer areas like IoT, enterprises are clearly failing to prioritize security mechanisms like firmware signing that would counter the most urgent threats, such as malware.
“And with the massive increase in certificates issued and acquired found in this year’s study, the importance of automated certificate management, a flexible PKI deployment approach, and strong best practice-based security including HSMs has never been greater.”
What is the threat?
An ATM cash-out attack is an elaborate and choreographed attack in which criminals breach a bank or payment card processor and manipulate fraud detection controls as well as alter customer accounts so there are no limits to withdraw money from numerous ATMs in a short period of time.
Criminals often manipulate balances and withdrawal limits to allow ATM withdrawals until ATM machines are empty of cash.
How do ATM cash-out attacks work?
An ATM cash-out attack requires careful planning and execution. Often, the criminal enterprise gains remote access to a card management system to alter the fraud prevention controls such as withdrawal limits or PIN number of compromised cardholder accounts. This is commonly done by inserting malware via phishing or social engineering methods into a financial institution or payment processor’s systems.
The criminal enterprise then can create new accounts or use compromised existing accounts and/or distribute compromised debit/credit cards to a group of people who make withdrawals at ATMs in a coordinated manner.
With control of the card management system, criminals can manipulate balances and withdrawal limits to allow ATM withdrawals until ATM machines are empty of cash.
These attacks usually do not exploit vulnerabilities in the ATM itself. The ATM is used to withdraw cash after vulnerabilities in the card issuers authorization system have been exploited.
Who is most at risk?
Financial institutions, and payment processors are most at financial risk and likely to be the target of these large-scale, coordinated attacks. These institutions stand to potentially lose millions of dollars in a very short time period and can have exposure in multiple regions around the world as the result of this highly organized, well-orchestrated criminal attack.
What are some detection best practices?
- Velocity monitoring of underlying accounts and volume
- 24/7 monitoring capabilities including File Integrity Monitoring Systems (FIMs)
- Reporting system that sounds the alarm immediately when suspicious activity is identified
- Development and practice of an incident response management system
- Check for unexpected traffic sources (e.g. IP addresses)
- Look for unauthorized execution of network tools.
What are some prevention best practices?
- Strong access controls to your systems and identification of third-party risks
- Employee monitoring systems to guard against an “inside job”
- Continuous phishing training for employees
- Multi-factor authentication
- Strong password management
- Require layers of authentication/approval for remote changes to account balances and transaction limits
- Implementation of required security patches in a timely manner (ASAP)
- Regular penetration testing
- Frequent reviews of access control mechanisms and access privileges
- Strict separation of roles that have privileged access to ensure no one user ID can perform sensitive functions
- Installation of file integrity monitoring software that can also serve as a detection mechanism
- Strict adherence to the entire PCI DSS.
The ongoing global pandemic that has led to massive levels of remote work and an increased use of hybrid IT systems is leading to greater insecurity and risk exposure for enterprises.
According to new data released by Cybersecurity Insiders, 72% of organizations experienced an increase in endpoint and IoT security incidents in the last year, while 56% anticipate their organization will likely be compromised due to an endpoint or IoT-originated attack with the next 12 months.
The comprehensive survey of 325 IT and cybersecurity decision makers in the US, conducted in September 2020, represented a balanced cross-section of organizations from financial services, healthcare and technology to government and energy.
IoT and enpoint security challenge
Alongside headline data that the majority experienced an endpoint and IoT security incident over the last 12 months, the top 3 issues were related to malware (78%), insecure network and remote access (61%), and compromised credentials (58%).
Perhaps more concerning was that 43% of respondents expressed “moderate to unlikely means to discover, identify, and respond to unknown, unmanaged, or insecure devices accessing network and cloud resources.”
“It is clear from this new research that the challenge of securing IoT and endpoints has escalated considerably as employees have been forced to work remotely while organizations try to rapidly adapt to the situation,” said Scott Gordon, CMO at Pulse Secure.
“The threat is real and growing. Yet, on a positive note, the survey shows that organizations are investing in key initiatives and adopting zero trust elements such as remote access device posture checking and Network Access Control (NAC) to address some of these issues.“
The negative impact of an endpoint or IoT security issue
The research found that 41% will implement or advance on-premise device security enforcement, 35% will advance their remote access devices posture checking, and 22% will advance their IoT device identification and monitoring capabilities.
For those that have been victim of an endpoint or IoT security issue, the most significant negative impact was a reported loss of user (55%) and IT (45%) productivity, followed by system downtime (42%).
Holger Schulze, CEO at Cybersecurity Insiders added, “The diversity of users, devices, networks, and threats continue to grow as enterprises take advantage of greater workforce mobility, workplace flexibility, and cloud computing opportunities.
“Not only do organizations need to ensure endpoints are secure and adhering to usage policy, but they must also manage appropriate IoT device access. New zero trust security controls can fortify dynamic device discovery, verification, tracking, remediation, and access enforcement.”
Additional key findings
- Respondents rated the biggest endpoint and IoT security challenges as #1 insufficient protection against the latest threats (49%), #2 high complexity of deployment and operations (47%), and #3 inability to enforce endpoint and IoT device access/usage policy (40%).
- Respondents rated the most critical capabilities required to mitigate endpoint and IoT security as #1 monitoring endpoint or IoT devices for malicious or anomalous activity (54%), #2 blocking or isolating unknown or at-risk endpoint and IoT devices’ network access (51%), and #3 blocking at-risk devices’ access to network or cloud resources (46%).
- When asked about anticipated investments to secure remote worker access and endpoint security technology, most organizations (61%) anticipate an increase, or significant increase, while few expect a decrease (6%).
Information security policies (ISP) that are not grounded in the realities of an employee’s work responsibilities and priorities expose organizations to higher risk for data breaches, according to a research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.
The study’s findings, that subcultures within an organization influence whether employees violate ISP or not, have led researchers to recommend an overhaul of the design and implementation of ISP, and to work with employees to find ways to seamlessly fit ISP compliance into their day-to-day tasks.
“The frequency, scope and cost of data breaches have been increasing dramatically in recent years, and the majority of these cases happen because humans are the weakest link in the security chain. Non-compliance to ISP by employees is one of the important factors,” said Sumantra Sarkar, associate professor of management information systems in Binghamton University’s School of Management.
“We wanted to understand why certain employees were more likely to comply with information security policies than others in an organization.”
How subcultures influence compliance within healthcare orgs
Sarkar, with a research team, sought to determine how subcultures influence compliance, specifically within healthcare organizations.
“Every organization has a culture that is typically set by top management. But within that, you have subcultures among different professional groups in the organization,” said Sarkar. “Each of these groups are trained in a different way and are responsible for different tasks.”
Sarkar and his fellow researchers focused on ISP compliance within three subcultures found in a hospital setting – physicians, nurses and support staff.
The expansive study took years to complete, with one researcher embedding in a hospital for over two years to observe and analyze activities, as well as to conduct interviews and surveys with multiple employees.
Because patient data in a hospital is highly confidential, one area researchers focused on was the requirement for hospital employees to lock their electronic health record (EHR) workstation when not present.
“Physicians, who are dealing with emergency situations constantly were more likely to leave a workstation unlocked. They were more worried about the immediate care of a patient than the possible risk of a data breach,” said Sarkar.
“On the opposite end, support staff rarely kept workstations unlocked when they were away, as they felt they were more likely to be punished or fired should a data breach occur.”
Researchers concluded that each subculture within an organization will respond differently to the organization-wide ISP, leaving organizations open to a higher possibility of data breaches.
Their recommendation – consult with each subculture while developing ISP.
“Information security professionals should have a better understanding of the day-to-day tasks of each professional group, and then find ways to seamlessly integrate ISP compliance within those job tasks,” said Sarkar. “It is critical that we find ways to redesign ISP systems and processes in order to create less friction.”
In the context of a hospital setting, Sarkar recommends touchless, proximity-based authentication mechanisms that could lock or unlock workstations when an employee approaches or leaves a workstation.
Researchers also found that most employees understand the value of ISP compliance, and realize the potential cost of a data breach. However, Sarkar believes that outdated information security policies’ compliance measures have the potential to put employees in a conflict of priorities.
“There shouldn’t be situations where physicians are putting the entire hospital at risk for a data breach because they are dealing with a patient who needs emergency care,” he said. “We need to find ways to accommodate the responsibilities of different employees within an organization.”