Automation will play a major role in shaping cybersecurity attack and defence activities in 2021, WatchGuard predicts.
Traditionally a high-investment, high-return targeted attack, in 2021 automation tools will replace manual techniques to help cybercriminals launch spear phishing campaigns at record volumes, by harvesting victim-specific data from social media sites and company web pages.
Automated spear phishing attacks to prey on fears
And as society continues to grapple with the impact of COVID-19, it is likely that these automated spear phishing attacks will prey on fears around the pandemic, politics and the economy.
Conversely, the research team believes that automation will also help cloud-hosting providers such as Amazon, Microsoft and Google to crack down on cybercriminal groups abusing their reputation and services to launch malicious attacks.
Threat actors commonly host website HTML files designed to mimic a legitimate website like Microsoft 365 or Google Drive to steal credentials submitted by unsuspecting victims. But in 2021, these companies will deploy automated tools and file validation technologies that will spot spoofed authentication portals.
In its annual look ahead to the next 12 months, the tumultuous events of 2020 will impact the threat landscape next year and for years to come. Other predictions include:
Attackers swarm VPNs and RDPs as the remote workforce grows
As more companies adopt VPNs and Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) solutions to provide secure connections to employees working from home, attacks against them will double in 2021. If an attacker can compromise VPN, RDP or remote connection servers, they have an unobstructed path into the corporate network.
Security gaps in legacy endpoints targeted
Endpoints have become a high priority target for attackers during the global pandemic and many personal computers are still running legacy software that is difficult to patch or update.
With Microsoft just ending its extended support program for Windows 7, organizations are warned to expect at least one major new Windows 7 vulnerability to make headlines in 2021.
Services without MFA will suffer a breach
Authentication is the cornerstone of strong security; but with billions of usernames and passwords available on the dark web and the prevalence of automated authentication attacks, no Internet-exposed service is safe from cyber intrusion if it isn’t using multi-factor authentication (MFA). In fact, any service without MFA enabled is highly likely to be compromised in 2021.
“But our Threat Lab team along with other researchers around the world have an increasing level of analytics and insight to make well-informed guesses. Cybercriminals always look for the weak links, so the growing ranks of home workers are an obvious target and when it comes to new technologies such as automation and AI, what can work for good, can also be exploited for malicious activity. It’s just a case of trying to stay one step ahead.”
Sophos published a report which flags how ransomware and fast-changing attacker behaviors, from advanced to entry level, will shape the threat landscape and IT security in 2021.
Increased gap between ransomware operators
The gap between ransomware operators at different ends of the skills and resource spectrum will increase. At the high end, the big-game hunting ransomware families will continue to refine and change their tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) to become more evasive and nation-state-like in sophistication, targeting larger organizations with multimillion-dollar ransom demands.
In 2020, such families included Ryuk and RagnarLocker. At the other end of the spectrum, Sophos anticipates an increase in the number of entry level, apprentice-type attackers looking for menu-driven, ransomware-for-rent, such as Dharma, that allows them to target high volumes of smaller prey.
Another ransomware trend is “secondary extortion,” where alongside the data encryption the attackers steal and threaten to publish sensitive or confidential information, if their demands are not met. In 2020, Sophos reported on Maze, RagnarLocker, Netwalker, REvil, and others using this approach.
“The ransomware business model is dynamic and complex. During 2020, Sophos saw a clear trend towards adversaries differentiating themselves in terms of their skills and targets. However, we’ve also seen ransomware families sharing best-of-breed tools and forming self-styled collaborative ‘cartels,’” said Chester Wisniewski, principal research scientist, Sophos.
“Some, like Maze, appeared to pack their bags and head for a life of leisure, except that some of their tools and techniques have resurfaced under the guise of a newcomer, Egregor. The cyberthreat landscape abhors a vacuum. If one threat disappears another one will quickly take its place.
“In many ways, it is almost impossible to predict where ransomware will go next, but the attack trends discussed in Sophos’ threat report this year are likely to continue into 2021.”
Everyday threats demand serious security attention
Everyday threats such as commodity malware, including loaders and botnets, or human-operated Initial Access Brokers, will demand serious security attention. Such threats can seem like low level malware noise, but they are designed to secure a foothold in a target, gather essential data and share data back to a command-and-control network that will provide further instructions.
If human operators are behind these types of threats, they’ll review every compromised machine for its geolocation and other signs of high value, and then sell access to the most lucrative targets to the highest bidder, such as a major ransomware operation. For instance, in 2020, Ryuk used Buer Loader to deliver its ransomware.
“Commodity malware can seem like a sandstorm of low-level noise clogging up the security alert system. From what Sophos analyzed, it is clear that defenders need to take these attacks seriously, because of where they might lead.
“Any infection can lead to every infection. Many security teams will feel that once malware has been blocked or removed and the compromised machine cleaned, the incident has been prevented,” said Wisniewski.
“They may not realize that the attack was likely against more than one machine and that seemingly common malware like Emotet and Buer Loader can lead to Ryuk, Netwalker and other advanced attacks, which IT may not notice until the ransomware deploys, possibly in the middle of the night or on the weekend. Underestimating ‘minor’ infections could prove very costly.”
Adversaries evading detection and security measures
All ranks of adversaries will increasingly abuse legitimate tools, well known utilities and common network destinations to evade detection and security measures and thwart analysis and attribution.
The abuse of legitimate tools enables adversaries to stay under the radar while they move around the network until they are ready to launch the main part of the attack, such as ransomware.
For nation-state-sponsored attackers, there is the additional benefit that using common tools makes attribution harder. In 2020, Sophos reported on the wide range of standard attack tools now being used by adversaries.
“The abuse of everyday tools and techniques to disguise an active attack featured prominently in Sophos’ review of the threat landscape during 2020. This technique challenges traditional security approaches because the appearance of known tools doesn’t automatically trigger a red flag. This is where the rapidly growing field of human-led threat hunting and managed threat response really comes into its own,” said Wisniewski.
“Human experts know the subtle anomalies and traces to look for, such as a legitimate tool being used at the wrong time or in the wrong place. To trained threat hunters or IT managers using endpoint detection and response (EDR) features, these signs are valuable tripwires that can alert security teams to a potential intruder and an attack underway.”
- Attacks on servers: adversaries have targeted server platforms running both Windows and Linux, and leveraged these platforms to attack organizations from within
- The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on IT security, such as the security challenges of working from home using personal networks protected by widely varying levels of security
- The security challenges facing cloud environments: cloud computing has successfully borne the brunt of a lot of the enterprise needs for secure computing environments, but faces challenges different to those of a traditional enterprise network
- Common services like RDP and VPN concentrators, which remain a focus for attacks on the network perimeter. Attackers also use RDP to move laterally within breached networks
- Software applications traditionally flagged as “potentially unwanted” because they delivered a plethora of advertisements, but engaged in tactics that are increasingly indistinguishable from overt malware
- The surprising reappearance of an old bug, VelvetSweatshop – a default password feature for earlier versions of Microsoft Excel – used to conceal macros or other malicious content in documents and evade advanced threat detection
- The need to apply approaches from epidemiology to quantify unseen, undetected and unknown cyberthreats in order to better bridge gaps in detection, assess risk and define priorities
The story of digital authentication started in an MIT lab in 1961, when a group of computer scientists got together and devised the concept of passwords. Little did they know the anguish it would cause over the next 50 years. Today, most people possess more than 90 username-and-password combinations and would rather click “Reset password” than try to remember them all.
Unfortunately, passwords are not only inconvenient, but dangerous as well – it’s a problem the world has been grappling with for the last 20 years, at least. Somewhere in the background, though, the authentication wheel has been turning and recently, at the Apple Worldwide Developer Conference (WWDC), two promising announcements were made.
But first, let’s backtrack a bit…
Everybody loves pizza
Authentication has evolved in several interesting ways. Two-factor authentication, for example, was developed in response to account takeover fraud – and it had its place. But when people started doubling up on the knowledge factor, we started seeing instances of knowledge-based authentication where, if you forgot your password, you could enter your mother’s maiden name, the title of your favorite book or your favorite food. Attackers could still succeed by guessing because, as it turns out, most people like pizza!
What if those scientists had started out differently and looked more closely at how other valuables were being protected?
House and car keys, for example, still represent strong possession factors that grant access to high-value assets. They’ve been used for ages with great success and, as a result, make the concept of possession as a primary factor easy for users to understand: “keep your keys safe, it grants you access.” There was never a need to add an extra layer of authentication.
Fast-forward to the digital era, and car keys have evolved to enable keyless entry. Houses, too, are commonly accessed with a remote. In both cases, unique challenge-response mechanisms are used for every transaction, making them impossible to intercept or copy.
Which brings me back to the first of two Apple announcements mentioned earlier.
Where physical meets digital
After much experimenting with identification and endpoints, the iPhone can now act as a car key. Though Apple devices are protected by biometrics and PINs, isn’t it ironic that after all this time, the iPhone – in all its sophisticated glory – has become like a physical key in a sense?
Had that MIT team been able to use an uncopiable “digital key,” perhaps today’s digital world would not be littered with billions of passwords, and attackers would have had to physically approach their victims to steals their keys. That would have cost money and exposed them to capture, making attacks much more costly and risky when compared to attacks that are carried out by sending out thousands of phishing emails at a time.
Of course, there have been several attempts to come up with alternatives. Many dedicated hardware devices have been used over the years with varying degrees of success, but no-one has ever hit the nail on the head.
Some companies allocated a number but did not generate it themselves. Instead, they used a number found or calculated on the device (like the phone’s IMEI or browser fingerprinting), breaking the challenge-response paradigm and nullifying the isolation principle. Others issued physical hardware (like keys) that created cost and distribution challenges, not to mention them being yet another thing for users to carry around.
A vision of endpoint perfection
Companies entering this space need to recognize the value of secure endpoints and find a solution that will:
- Ensure that each endpoint instance is allocated a unique, once-off value
- Ensure that each challenge-response mechanism is unique every time
- Limit the “key” to a single use and having a unique “key” for each mobile app
- Have the ability to issue new keys for each new use case and make the linking easy
- Have the ability to issue keys to devices that users already have in their possession
This can result in stable endpoints. Though certain requirements may force a business to include passwords here and there, the endpoint always needs to be the anchor.
When looking at companies that applied the security principles mentioned above, many arrived at similar solutions. The FIDO Alliance, for example, launched eight years ago to tackle the world’s over-reliance on passwords. They chose to focus mainly on protecting website logins. However, there are ways that businesses can obtain certifications and become FIDO compliant.
Android announced that FIDO would be built into their devices. Microsoft then followed suit, adding it to their authentication setup in Windows (Windows Hello). Only one dominant player remained – Apple – and they were silent. Then, suddenly, with iOS 13.3, Safari started supporting external FIDO tokens. So, when Apple joined the FIDO Alliance in February this year, many were already anticipating a WWDC unveiling – yes, the second announcement.
Now, the endpoint puzzle is finally complete and later this year, all major desktop (Windows and macOS) and mobile (iOS and Android) operating systems will feature built-in FIDO authenticators operating as secure endpoints.
Trusted endpoints: Where we need to be
The vision of trusted endpoints is becoming a reality and finally, context-specific identities can be provisioned into most consumer devices. Consumers can now trust in a physical device, not in some digital thing that can easily be lost or forgotten.
To succeed, attackers will need to gain access to the physical device, which is not easily done.
Of course, there are many challenges we still need to tackle. However, they pale in comparison to the potential that now exists to create exciting new customer journeys using a universal platform authenticator.
Federal IT leaders across the country voiced the importance of network visibility in managing and securing their agencies’ increasingly complex and hybrid networks, according to Riverbed.
Of 200 participating federal government IT decision makers and influencers, 90 percent consider their networks to be moderately-to-highly complex, and 32 percent say that increasing network complexity is the greatest challenge an IT professional without visibility faces in their agency when managing the network.
Driving this network complexity are Cloud First and Cloud Smart initiatives that make it an imperative for federal IT to modernize its infrastructure with cloud transformation and “as-a-service” adoption.
More than 25 percent of respondents are still in the planning stages of their priority modernization projects, though 87 percent of survey respondents recognize that network visibility is a strong or moderate enabler of cloud infrastructure.
Network visibility can help expedite the evaluation process to determine what goes onto an agency’s cloud and what data and apps stay on-prem; it also allows clearer, ongoing management across the networks to enable smooth transitions to cloud, multi-cloud and hybrid infrastructures.
Accelerated move to cloud
The COVID-19 has further accelerated modernization and cloud adoption to support the massive shift of the federal workforce to telework – a recent Market Connections study indicates that 90 percent of federal employees are currently teleworking and that 86 percent expect to continue to do so at least part-time after the pandemic ends.
The rapid adoption of cloud-based services and solutions and an explosion of new endpoints accessing agency networks during the pandemic generated an even greater need for visibility into the who, what, when and where of traffic. In fact, 81 percent of survey respondents noted that the increasing use of telework accelerated their agency’s use and deployment of network visibility solutions, with 25 percent responding “greatly.”
“The accelerated move to cloud was necessary because the majority of federal staff were no longer on-prem, creating significant potential for disruption to citizen services and mission delivery,” said Marlin McFate, public sector CTO at Riverbed.
“This basically took IT teams from being able to see, to being blind. All of their users were now outside of their protected environments, and they no longer had control over the internet connections, the networks employees were logging on from or who or what else had access to those networks. To be able to securely maintain networks and manage end-user experience, you have to have greater visibility.”
Visibility drives security
Lack of visibility into agency networks and the proliferation of apps and endpoints designed to improve productivity and collaboration expands the potential attack surface for cyberthreats.
Ninety-three percent of respondents believe that greater network visibility facilitates greater network security and 96 percent believe network visibility is moderately or highly valuable in assuring secure infrastructure.
Further, respondents ranked cybersecurity as their agency’s number one priority that can be improved through better network visibility, and automated threat detection was identified as the most important feature of a network visibility solution (24 percent), followed by advanced reporting features (14 percent), and automated alerting (13 percent).
“Network visibility is the foundation of cybersecurity and federal agencies have to know what’s on their network so they can rapidly detect and remediate malicious actors. And while automation enablement calls for an upfront time investment, it can significantly improve response time not only for cyber threat detection but also network issues that can hit employee productivity,” concluded McFate.
Vulnerability management (VM) technology addresses the threat landscape, which is in a constant state of flux. The wider dispersal of endpoints across private and public cloud environments increases the points of vulnerabilities in an enterprise network, intensifying the demand for VM solutions that make endpoints easier to track, verify, and secure.
To prevent attacks and damage to a business, VM providers employ various means of identifying, prioritizing, communicating, and suggesting possible responses to the risks companies face in their networked business environments.
The leading VM platforms provide a complete picture of a client’s security posture, correlating the client organization’s assets, classifying their importance with the vulnerabilities identified in the scan, and offering information for remediation.
A multilayered defense
Frost & Sullivan’s latest thought leadership paper analyzes the threat landscape and the role of VM in addressing the security concerns of the entire enterprise. It analyzes end-user willingness to invest in VM platforms that help provide a holistic cybersecurity approach in various areas, including vulnerability prioritization, automated workflows, and third-party integration.
“This aids a multilayered defense, which has proven to be superior to discrete technologies working separately in network defense. VM platforms that allow IT departments to conduct continual vulnerability assessments are emerging as one of the top five solutions for organizations concerned about system vulnerabilities as part of their security maturity improvement initiatives.”
According to the research, two out of every three cyberattacks in the United States and three out of every four in Europe are categorized as severe by the organizations affected by them.
CISOs are conflicted about how their companies can best reposition themselves to address the sudden and rapid shift to remote work caused by the pandemic, a Hysolate research reveals.
The story emerging from the data in the study is clear:
- COVID-19 has accelerated the arrival of the remote-first era.
- Legacy remote access solutions such as virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI), desktop-as-a-service (DaaS), and virtual private networks (VPN), among others, leave much to be desired in the eyes of CISOs and are not well suited to handle many of the new demands of the remote-first era.
- Half of CISOs believe that security measures are impacting productivity when scaling remote-first policies.
- Bring-your-own-PC (BYOPC) policies further complicate organizations’ approaches to secure remote access.
Remote work becoming a permanent workflow
Beyond the overwhelming consensus that work-from-home is here to stay (87 percent of respondents believe remote work has become a permanent workflow in their companies’ operations), the study reveals that there is no singular best practice or market-leading approach to enabling workers in the remote-first era.
There is no prevailing solution in place to provide secure remote access to corporate assets:
- 24 percent of survey respondents utilize VPN, and more than half of these also employ split tunneling, a practice that allows users to access dissimilar security domains at the same time, to reduce the organization’s VPN loads and traffic backhauling. However, of those that use split tunneling, two-thirds of CISOs express concerns about the security of the split tunneling approach.
- 36 percent deploy VDI or DaaS. However, of those CISOs that utilize VDI or DaaS, only 18 percent say their employees are happy with their company’s VDI or DaaS solution. Further, dissatisfaction with these legacy remote access solutions isn’t limited to user experience; more than three-quarters of CISOs feel that their return on investment in VDI or DaaS has been medium to low.
Remote security policies issues
CISOs are also grappling with what their remote security policies should be in the new remote-first era:
- 26 percent of CISOs surveyed have introduced more stringent endpoint security and corporate access measures since the arrival of the pandemic.
- 35 percent have relaxed their security policies in order to foster greater productivity among remote workers.
- 39 percent have left their security policies the same.
More than 60 percent of companies felt that they weren’t ready for the changes that the proliferation of the pandemic forced. What is uncertain is whether the other 39 percent who have made no changes are standing pat because they are comfortable with their company’s security posture or because they don’t know what changes to make.
CISOs scramble to enable remote work and maintain security
“But when we surveyed CISOs who were scrambling to scale their remote workforce IT operations in light of the pandemic, it became clear how important worker productivity has now become and that legacy solutions like VPN, VDI and DaaS just can’t handle the demands of the new remote-first reality.”
Web browsing restrictions and BYOPC policies further muddy the remote-first waters. Sixty-two percent of CISOs said their companies restrict access to certain websites on corporate devices, while 22 percent say their companies do not allow access to corporate networks or applications from a non-corporate device.
The confusion indicated by the mixed results of the survey report is enough to cause many CISOs a sleepless night. In fact, the varied response trend carried over to the one unconventional question asked in the study regarding pandemic indulgences: 20 percent of CISOs report drinking more wine during the COVID-19 crisis; 32 percent drink more coffee; 8 percent choose whiskey; and, perhaps in what should come as a surprise to no one, 40 percent chose “All of the Above.”
Cyberattacks are becoming increasingly sophisticated as tools and services on the dark web – and even the surface web – enable low-skill threat actors to create highly evasive threats. Unfortunately, most of today’s modern malware evades traditional signature-based anti-malware services, arriving to endpoints with ease. As a result, organizations lacking a layered security approach often find themselves in a precarious situation. Furthermore, threat actors have also become extremely successful at phishing users out of their credentials or simply brute forcing credentials thanks to the widespread reuse of passwords.
A lot has changed across the cybersecurity threat landscape in the last decade, but one thing has remained the same: the endpoint is under siege. What has changed is how attackers compromise endpoints. Threat actors have learned to be more patient after gaining an initial foothold within a system (and essentially scope out their victim).
Take the massive Norsk Hydro ransomware attack as an example: The initial infection occurred three months prior to the attacker executing the ransomware and locking down much of the manufacturer’s computer systems. That was more than enough time for Norsk to detect the breach before the damage could done, but the reality is most organization simply don’t have a sophisticated layered security strategy in place.
In fact, the most recent IBM Cost of a Data Breach Report found it took organizations an average of 280 days to identify and contain a breach. That’s more than 9 months that an attacker could be sitting on your network planning their coup de grâce.
So, what exactly are attackers doing with that time? How do they make their way onto the endpoint undetected?
It usually starts with a phish. No matter what report you choose to reference, most point out that around 90% of cyberattacks start with a phish. There are several different outcomes associated with a successful phish, ranging from compromised credentials to a remote access trojan running on the computer. For credential phishes, threat actors have most recently been leveraging customizable subdomains of well-known cloud services to host legitimate-looking authentication forms.
The above screenshot is from a recent phish WatchGuard Threat Lab encountered. The link within the email was customized to the individual recipient, allowing the attacker to populate the victim’s email address into the fake form to increase credibility. The phish was even hosted on a Microsoft-owned domain, albeit on a subdomain (servicemanager00) under the attacker’s control, so you can see how an untrained user might fall for something like this.
That secondary payload is usually a remote-access trojan or botnet of some form that includes a suite of tools like keyloggers, shell script-injectors, and the ability to download additional modules. The infection isn’t usually limited to the single endpoint for long after this. Attackers can use their foothold to identify other targets on the victim’s network and rope them in as well.
It’s even easier if the attackers manage to get hold of a valid set of credentials and the organization hasn’t deployed multi-factor authentication. It allows the threat actor to essentially walk right in through the digital front door. They can then use the victim’s own services – like built-in Windows scripting engines and software deployment services – in a living-off-the-land attack to carry out malicious actions. We commonly see threat actors leverage PowerShell to deploy fileless malware in preparation to encrypt and/or exfiltrate critical data.
The WatchGuard Threat Lab recently identified an ongoing infection while onboarding a new customer. By the time we arrived, the threat actor had already been on the victim’s network for some time thanks to compromising at least one local account and one domain account with administrative permissions. Our team was not able to identify how exactly the threat actor obtained the credentials, or how long they had been present on the network, but as soon as our threat hunting services were turned on, indicators immediately lit up identifying the breach.
In this attack, the threat actors used a combination of Visual Basic Scripts and two popular PowerShell toolkits – PowerSploit and Cobalt Strike – to map out the victim’s network and launch malware. One behavior we saw came from Cobalt Strike’s shell code decoder enabled the threat actors to download malicious commands, load them into memory, and execute them directly from there, without the code ever touching the victim’s hard drive. These fileless malware attacks can range from difficult to impossible to detect with traditional endpoint anti-malware engines that rely on scanning files to identify threats.
Elsewhere on the network our team saw the threat actors using PsExec, a built in Windows tool, to launch a remote access trojan with SYSTEM-level privileges thanks to the compromised domain admin credentials. The team also identified the threat actors attempts to exfiltrate sensitive data to a DropBox account using a command-line based cloud storage management tool.
Fortunately, they were able to identify and clean up the malware quickly. However, without the victim changing the stolen credentials, the attacker could have likely re-initiated their attack at-will. Had the victim deployed an advanced Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) engine as part of their layered security strategy, they could have stopped or slowed the damage created from those stolen credentials.
Attackers are targeting businesses indiscriminately, even small organizations. Relying on a single layer of protection simply no longer works to keep a business secure. No matter the size of an organization, it’s important to adopt a layered security approach that can detect and stop modern endpoint attacks. This means protections from the perimeter down to the endpoint, including user training in the middle. And, don’t forget about the role of multifactor authentication (MFA) – could be the difference between stopping an attack and becoming another breach statistic.
The ongoing global pandemic that has led to massive levels of remote work and an increased use of hybrid IT systems is leading to greater insecurity and risk exposure for enterprises.
According to new data released by Cybersecurity Insiders, 72% of organizations experienced an increase in endpoint and IoT security incidents in the last year, while 56% anticipate their organization will likely be compromised due to an endpoint or IoT-originated attack with the next 12 months.
The comprehensive survey of 325 IT and cybersecurity decision makers in the US, conducted in September 2020, represented a balanced cross-section of organizations from financial services, healthcare and technology to government and energy.
IoT and enpoint security challenge
Alongside headline data that the majority experienced an endpoint and IoT security incident over the last 12 months, the top 3 issues were related to malware (78%), insecure network and remote access (61%), and compromised credentials (58%).
Perhaps more concerning was that 43% of respondents expressed “moderate to unlikely means to discover, identify, and respond to unknown, unmanaged, or insecure devices accessing network and cloud resources.”
“It is clear from this new research that the challenge of securing IoT and endpoints has escalated considerably as employees have been forced to work remotely while organizations try to rapidly adapt to the situation,” said Scott Gordon, CMO at Pulse Secure.
“The threat is real and growing. Yet, on a positive note, the survey shows that organizations are investing in key initiatives and adopting zero trust elements such as remote access device posture checking and Network Access Control (NAC) to address some of these issues.“
The negative impact of an endpoint or IoT security issue
The research found that 41% will implement or advance on-premise device security enforcement, 35% will advance their remote access devices posture checking, and 22% will advance their IoT device identification and monitoring capabilities.
For those that have been victim of an endpoint or IoT security issue, the most significant negative impact was a reported loss of user (55%) and IT (45%) productivity, followed by system downtime (42%).
Holger Schulze, CEO at Cybersecurity Insiders added, “The diversity of users, devices, networks, and threats continue to grow as enterprises take advantage of greater workforce mobility, workplace flexibility, and cloud computing opportunities.
“Not only do organizations need to ensure endpoints are secure and adhering to usage policy, but they must also manage appropriate IoT device access. New zero trust security controls can fortify dynamic device discovery, verification, tracking, remediation, and access enforcement.”
Additional key findings
- Respondents rated the biggest endpoint and IoT security challenges as #1 insufficient protection against the latest threats (49%), #2 high complexity of deployment and operations (47%), and #3 inability to enforce endpoint and IoT device access/usage policy (40%).
- Respondents rated the most critical capabilities required to mitigate endpoint and IoT security as #1 monitoring endpoint or IoT devices for malicious or anomalous activity (54%), #2 blocking or isolating unknown or at-risk endpoint and IoT devices’ network access (51%), and #3 blocking at-risk devices’ access to network or cloud resources (46%).
- When asked about anticipated investments to secure remote worker access and endpoint security technology, most organizations (61%) anticipate an increase, or significant increase, while few expect a decrease (6%).
This year’s shift to a near 100% WFH workforce by the Global 5000 has significantly changed the behaviors of trusted insiders, a DTEX Systems report reveals.
Key findings include a 450% increase in employees circumventing security controls to intentionally mask online activities and 230% increase in behaviors that indicate intent to steal data.
The data was collected during interviews with hundreds of customers and Global 5000 organizations representing a diverse sample set of businesses that varied by size, industry, and geography.
“Our findings indicate that in 2020 the equilibrium of employee security and trust has been broadly disrupted and is currently in chaos,” said Mohan Koo, CTO at DTEX Systems.
“Trusted insiders once thought to be reliable and responsible are changing their behaviors and increasing the risk of data loss, external attack and regulatory compliance violations for their employers.”
56% of companies reported remote workers actively bypassed security controls to intentionally obfuscate online activity. This is more than 4.5 times higher than 2019 which represents a 450% increase in the first eight months of 2020.
- More than 70% of the escalated incidents visible to the security and HR teams included at least one attempt to circumvent a second security control to exfiltrate data without detection.
- Companies reported remote workers most commonly attempted to intentionally bypass the corporate VPN to mask their online activities.
72% of companies surveyed saw data theft attempts by a departing employee wanting to take protected IP with them or a new employee looking to inject IP from a previous employer. This represents an increase of 2.3 times, or 230%, over similar behaviors seen in 2019.
Over 40% of incidents proactively detected flight risk behavior as well as abnormal reconnaissance or data aggregation activities.
The growth in premeditated data theft attempts and intentional activity masking behaviors by employees strongly suggests that companies are facing a heightened risk of data loss as virtual employment models become the norm, furloughs are extended and reduction-in-force actions continue.
The findings in this report highlight the lack of adoption and ineffectiveness of network and endpoint cybersecurity, employee monitoring and data loss prevention tools and suggest that organizations need to prioritize the human-element and workforce behavior in relation to data, process and machines as a pillar of their next-generation security and IT technology strategies.
More and more security professionals are realizing that it’s impossible to fully secure a Windows machine – with all its legacy components and millions of potentially vulnerable lines of code – from within the OS. With attacks becoming more sophisticated than ever, hypervisor-based security, from below the OS, becomes a necessity.
Unlike modern OS kernels, hypervisors are designed for a very specific task. Their code is usually very small, well-reviewed and tested, making them very hard to exploit. Because of that, the world trusts modern hypervisors to run servers, containers, and other workloads in the cloud, which sometimes run side-by-side on the same physical server with complete separation and isolation. Because of that, companies are leveraging the same trusted technology to bring hardware-enforced isolation to the endpoint.
Microsoft Defender Application Guard
Microsoft Defender Application Guard (previously known as Windows Defender Application Guard, or just WDAG), brings hypervisor-based isolation to Microsoft Edge and Microsoft Office applications.
It allows administrators to apply policies that force untrusted web sites and documents to be opened in isolated Hyper-V containers, completely separating potential malware from the host OS. Malware running in such containers won’t be able to access and exfiltrate sensitive files such as corporate documents or the users’ corporate credentials, cookies, or tokens.
With Application Guard for Edge, when a user opens a web site that was not added to the allow-list, he is automatically redirected to a new isolated instance of Edge, continuing the session there. This isolated instance of Edge provides another, much stronger, sandboxing layer to cope with web threats. If allowed by the administrator, files downloaded during that session can be accessed later from the host OS.
With Application Guard for Office, when a user opens an unknown document, maybe downloaded from the internet or opened as an email attachment, the document is automatically opened in an isolated instance of Office.
Until now, such documents would be opened in “protected view”, a special mode that eliminates the threat from scripts and macros by disabling embedded code execution. Unfortunately, this mode sometimes breaks legit files, such as spreadsheets that contain harmless macros. It also prevents users from editing documents.
Many users blindly disable the “protected view” mode to enable editing, thereby allowing malware to execute on the device. With Application Guard for Office, users don’t compromise security (the malware is trapped inside the isolated container) nor productivity )the document is fully functional and editable inside the container).
In both cases, the container is spawned instantly, with minimal CPU, memory, and disk footprints. Unlike traditional virtual machines, IT administrators don’t need to manage the underlying OS inside the container. Instead, it’s built out of existing Windows system binaries that remain patched as long as the host OS is up to date. Microsoft has also introduced new virtual GPU capabilities, allowing software running inside the container to be hardware-GPU accelerated. With all these optimizations, Edge and Office running inside the container feel fast and responsive, almost as if they were running without an additional virtualization layer.
The missing compatibility
While Application Guard works well with Edge and Office, it doesn’t support other applications. Edge will always be the browser running inside the container. That means, for example, no Google accounts synchronization, something that many users probably want.
What about downloaded applications? Applications are not allowed to run inside the container. (The container hardening contains some WDAC policies that allow only specific apps to execute.) That means that users can execute those potentially malicious applications on the host OS only.
Administrators who don’t allow unknown apps on the host OS might reduce users’ productivity and increase frustration. This is probably more prominent today, with so many people working from home and using a new wave of modern collaboration tools and video conferencing applications.
Users who are invited to external meetings sometimes need to download and run a client that may be blocked by the organization on the host OS. Unfortunately, it’s not possible to run the client inside the container either, and the users need to look for other solutions.
And what about non-Office documents? Though Office documents are protected, non-Office documents aren’t. Users sometimes use various other applications to create and edit documents, such as Adobe Acrobat and Photoshop, Autodesk AutoCAD, and many others. Application Guard won’t help to protect the host OS from such documents that are received over email or downloaded from the internet.
Even with Office alone, there might be problems. Many organizations use Office add-ons to customize and streamline the end-user experience. These add-ons may integrate with other local or online applications to provide additional functionality. As Application Guard runs a vanilla Office without any customizations, these add-ons won’t be able to run inside the container.
The missing manageability
Configuring Application Guard is not easy. First, while Application Guard for Edge technically works on both Windows Pro and Windows Enterprise, only on Windows Enterprise is it possible to configure it to kick-in automatically for untrusted websites. For non-technical users, that makes Application Guard almost useless in the eyes of their IT administrators, as those users have to launch it manually every time they consider a website to be untrusted. That’s a lot of room for human error. Even if all the devices are running Windows Enterprise, it’s not a walk in the park for administrators.
For the networking isolation configuration, administrators have to provide a manual list of comma-separated IPs and domain names. It’s not possible to integrate with your already fully configured web-proxy. It’s also not possible to integrate with category-based filtering systems that you might also have. Aside from the additional system to manage, there is no convenient UI or advanced capabilities (such as automatic filtering based on categories) to use. To make it work with Chrome or Firefox, administrators also need to perform additional configurations, such as delivering browser extensions.
This is not a turnkey solution for administrators and it requires messing with multiple configurations and GPOs until it works.
In addition, other management capabilities are very limited. For example, while admins can define whether clipboard operations (copy+paste) are allowed between the host and the container, it’s not possible to allow these operations only one way and not the other. It’s also not possible to allow certain content types such as text and images, while blocking others, such as binary files.
OS customizations and additional software bundlings such as Edge extensions and Office add-ins are not available either.
While Office files are opened automatically in Application Guard, other file types aren’t. Administrators that would like to use Edge as a secure and isolated PDF viewer, for example, can’t configure that.
The missing security
As stated before, Application Guard doesn’t protect against malicious files that were mistakenly categorized to be safe by the user. The user might securely download a malicious file on his isolated Edge but then choose to execute it on the host OS. He might also mistakenly categorize an untrusted document as a corporate one, to have it opened on the host OS. Malware could easily infect the host due to user errors.
Another potential threat comes from the networking side. While malware getting into the container is isolated in some aspects such as memory (it can’t inject itself into processes running on the host) and filesystem (it can’t replace files on the host with infected copies), it’s not fully isolated on the networking side.
Application Guard containers leverage the Windows Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) feature, to fully share networking with the host. That means that malware running inside the container might be able to attack some sensitive corporate resources that are accessible by the host (e.g., databases and data centers) by exploiting network vulnerabilities.
While Application Guard tries to isolate web and document threats, it doesn’t provide isolation in other areas. As mentioned before, Application Guard can’t isolate non-Microsoft applications that the organization chooses to use but not trust. Video conferencing applications, for example, have been exploited in the past and usually don’t require access to corporate data – it’s much safer to execute these in an isolated container.
External device handling is another risky area. Think of CVE-2016-0133, which allowed attackers to execute malicious code in the Windows kernel simply by plugging a USB thumb drive into the victim’s laptop. Isolating unknown USB devices can stop such attacks.
The missing holistic solution
Wouldn’t it be great if users could easily open any risky document in an isolated environment, e.g., through a context menu? Or if administrators could configure any risky website, document, or application to be automatically transferred and opened in an isolated environment? And maybe also to have corporate websites to be automatically opened back on the host OS, to avoid mixing sensitive information and corporate credentials with non-corporate work?
How about automatically attaching risky USB devices to the container, e.g., personal thumb drives, to reduce chances of infecting the host OS? And what if all that could be easy for administrators to deploy and manage, as a turn-key solution in the cloud?
Traditional endpoint detection and response (EDR) solutions focus only on endpoint activity to detect attacks. As a result, they lack the context to analyze attacks accurately.
In this interview, Sumedh Thakar, President and Chief Product Officer, illustrates how Qualys fills the gaps by introducing a new multi-vector approach and the unifying power of its Cloud Platform to EDR, providing essential context and visibility to the entire attack chain.
How does Qualys Multi-Vector EDR differ from traditional EDR solutions?
Traditional EDR solutions focus only on endpoint activity, which lacks the context necessary to accurately analyze attacks and leads to a high rate of false positives. This can put an unnecessary burden on incident response teams and requires the use of multiple point solutions to make sense of it all.
Qualys Multi-Vector EDR leverages the strength of EDR while also extending the visibility and capabilities beyond the endpoint to provide a more comprehensive approach to protection. Multi-Vector EDR integrates with the Qualys Cloud Platform to deliver vital context and visibility into the entire attack chain while dramatically reducing the number of false positives and negatives as compared with traditional EDR.
This integration unifies multiple context vectors like asset discovery, rich normalized software inventory, end-of-life visibility, vulnerabilities and exploits, misconfigurations, in-depth endpoint telemetry and network reachability all correlated for assessment, detection and response in a single app. It provides threat hunters and incident response teams with crucial, real-time insight into what is happening on the endpoint.
Vectors and attack surfaces have multiplied. How do we protect these systems?
Many attacks today are multi-faceted. The suspicious or malicious activity detected at the endpoint is often only one small part of a larger, more complex attack. Companies need visibility across the environment to effectively fully understand the attack and its impact on the endpoint—as well as the potential consequences elsewhere on their network. This is where Qualys’ ability to gather and assess the contextual data on any asset via Qualys Global IT Asset Inventory becomes so important.
The goal of EDR is detection and response, but you need a holistic view to do it effectively. When a threat or suspicious activity is detected, you need to act quickly to understand what the information or indicator means, and how you can pivot to take action to prevent any further compromise.
How can security teams take advantage of Qualys Multi-Vector EDR?
Attack prevention and detection are two sides of the same coin for security teams. With current endpoint tools focusing solely on endpoint telemetry, security teams end up bringing in multiple point solutions and threat intelligence feeds to figure out what is happening in their environment.
On top of it, they need to invest their budget and time in integrating these solutions and correlating data for actionable insights. With Qualys EDR, security teams can continuously collate asset telemetry such as process, files and hashes to detect malicious activities and correlate with natively integrated threat intel for prioritization score-based response actions.
Instead of reactively taking care of malicious events one endpoint at a time, security teams can easily pivot to inspect other endpoints across the hybrid infrastructure for exploitable vulnerabilities, MITRE-based misconfigurations, end-of-life or unapproved software and systems that lack critical patches.
Additionally, through native workflows that provide exact recommendations, security and IT teams can patch or remediate the endpoints for the security findings. This is an improvement over previous methods which require handshaking of data from one tool to another via complex integrations and manual workflows.
For example, Qualys EDR can help security teams not only detect MITRE-based attacks and malicious connections due to RDP (remote desktop) exploitation but can also provide visibility across the infrastructure. This highlights endpoints that can connect to the exploited endpoint and have RDP vulnerabilities or a MITRE-mapped configuration failure such as LSASS. Multi-Vector EDR then lets the user patch vulnerabilities and automatically remediate misconfigurations.
Thus, Qualys’ EDR solution is designed to equip security teams with advanced detections based on multiple vectors and rapid response and prevention capabilities, minimizing human intervention, simplifying the entire security investigation and analyze processes for organizations of all sizes. Security practitioners can sign up for a free trial here.
What response strategies does Qualys Multi-Vector EDR use?
Qualys EDR with its multi-layered, highly scalable cloud platform, retains telemetry data for active and historical view and natively correlates it with multiple external threat intelligent feeds. This eliminates the need to rely on a single malware database and provides a prioritized risk-based threat view. This helps security teams hunt for the threats proactively and reactively with unified context of all security vectors, reducing alert fatigue and helping security teams concentrate on what is critical.
Qualys EDR provides comprehensive response capabilities that go beyond traditional EDR options, like killing process and network connections, quarantining files, and much more. In addition, it uniquely orchestrates responses such as preventing future attacks by correlating exploitable-to-malware vulnerabilities automatically, patching endpoints and software directly from the cloud and downloading patches from the vendor’s website, without going through the VPN bandwidth.
The survey, focused on changes in IT spending in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic, reveals that cybersecurity is IT leaders’ top focus for the rest of the year—and half of those surveyed are increasing their budgets to support their goals.
The pandemic has upended most businesses’ 2020 plans, with 70% of CIOs reporting their long-term priorities have shifted since the start of the year. Now, 89% said they’re focused on cybersecurity, while 82% are working on remote enablement.
Their goals reflect these new priorities: 86% said they’re aiming to improve security standards across their environment, while 80% are making their tech stack more flexible for remote and on-premise users. In addition, 75% said they were hoping to keep their IT infrastructure and tool stack up to date.
CIOs expect their budgets to increase in 2020
While budgets are tight for half the respondents, who don’t expect an increase in spending, the other half of CIOs expect their budgets to increase in 2020 to reflect shifts in IT. Some 33% anticipated a 5% increase, 13% foresaw a 5-10% increase, and 9% expected an increase greater than 10%.
To achieve their security and remote enablement goals, 43% of CIOs are investing in IAM, ahead of endpoint security (34%) and security awareness training (17%).
“Prioritizing IAM makes sense. CIOs have been waking up to the fact that most hackers don’t break down the gate—they just unlock it because they already have the keys,” said Kevin Nix, CEO at Hitachi ID.
“Bad actors have been focused on stolen credentials, phishing attacks, and social engineering, especially since the pandemic forced so many employees to work remotely. We’ve seen a new urgency among companies looking for IAM solutions. Last year, businesses might plan to adopt IAM over a year or two. Now they need it next quarter.”
- 67% of CIOs say they’re more willing to invest in emerging technologies
- 88% of respondents at companies with 500-1000 employees were planning to invest in emerging technology, the most of any size category. Just 45% of those at companies with 5,000 to 10,000 employees said the same, the lowest of any category.
- 87% would consider emerging security technology in 2020, while 71% would consider emerging AI and machine learning technology
Endpoint protection has evolved to safeguard from complex malware and evolving zero-day threats.
To select an appropriate endpoint protection solution for your business, you need to think about a variety of factors. We’ve talked to several cybersecurity professionals to get their insight on the topic.
Theresa Lanowitz, Head of Evangelism, AT&T Cybersecurity
Corporate endpoints represent a top area of security risk for organizations, especially considering the shift to virtual operations brought on by COVID-19. As malicious actors target endpoints with new types of attacks designed to evade traditional endpoint prevention tools, organizations must seek out advanced endpoint detection and response (EDR) solutions.
Traditionally, enterprise EDR solutions carry high cost and complexity, making it difficult for organizations to implement EDR successfully. While many security teams recognize the need for EDR, most do not have the resources to manage a standalone endpoint security solution.
For this reason, when selecting an EDR solution, it’s critical to seek a unified solution for threat detection, incident response and compliance, to be incorporated into an organization’s existing security stack, eliminating any added cost or complexity. Look for endpoint solutions where security teams can deploy a single platform that delivers advanced EDR combined with many other essential security capabilities in a single pane of glass, in an effort to drive efficiency of security and network operations.
Overall, organizations should select an EDR solution that enables security teams to detect and respond to threats faster while eliminating the cost and complexity of maintaining yet another point security solution. This approach can help organizations bolster their cybersecurity and network resiliency, with an eye towards securing the various endpoints used in today’s virtual workforce.
Rick McElroy, Cyber Security Strategist, VMware Carbon Black
With the continuously evolving threat landscape, there are a number of factors to consider during the selection process. Whether a security team is looking to replace antiquated malware prevention or empower a fully-automated security operations process, here are the key considerations:
- Does the platform have the flexibility for your environment? Not all endpoints are the same, therefore broad coverage of operating systems is a must.
- Does the vendor support the MITRE ATT&CK Framework for both testing and maturing the product? Organizations need to test security techniques, validate coverage and identify gaps in their environments, and implement mitigation to reduce attack surface.
- Does it provide deeper visibility into attacks than traditional antivirus? Organizations need deeper context to make a prevention, detection or response decision.
- Does the platform provide multiple security functionality in one lightweight sensor? Compute is expensive, endpoint security tools should be as non-impactful to the system as possible.
- Is the platform usable at scale? If your endpoint protection platform isn’t centrally analyzing behaviors across millions of endpoints, it won’t be able to spot minor fluctuations in normal activity to reveal attacks.
- Does the vendor’s roadmap meet the future needs of the organization? Any tool selected should allow teams the opportunity for growth and ability to use it for multiple years, building automated processes around it.
- Does the platform have open APIs? Teams want to integrate endpoints with SEIM, SOAR platforms and network security systems.
David Ngo, VP Metallic Products and Engineering, Commvault
With millions working remotely due to COVID-19, laptop endpoints being used by employees while they work from home are particularly vulnerable to data loss.
This has made it more important than ever for businesses to select a strong endpoint protection solution that:
- Lowers the risk of lost data. The best solutions have automated backups that run multiple times during the day to ensure recent data is protected and security features such as geolocation and remote wipe for lost or stolen laptops. Backup data isolation from source data can also provide an extra layer of protection from ransomware. In addition, anomaly detection capabilities can identify abnormal file access patterns that indicate an attack.
- Enables rapid recovery. If an endpoint is compromised, the solution should accelerate data recovery by offering metadata search for quick identification of backup data. It’s also important for the solution to provide multiple granular restore options – including point in time, out of place, and cross OS restores – to meet different recovery needs.
- Limits user and IT staff administration burdens. Endpoint solutions with silent install and backup capabilities require no action from end users and do not impact their productivity. The solution should also allow users and staff to access backup data, anytime, anywhere, from a browser-enabled device, and make it possible for employees to search and restore files themselves.
James Yeager, VP of Public Sector, CrowdStrike
Decision-makers seeking the best endpoint protection (EPP) solution for their business should be warned legacy security solutions are generally ineffective, leaving organizations highly susceptible to breaches, placing a huge burden on security teams and users.
Legacy tools, engineered by on-premises architectures, are unable to keep up with the capabilities made available in a modern EPP solution, like collecting data in real-time, storing it for long periods and analyzing it in a timely manner. Storing threat telemetry data in the cloud makes it possible to quickly search petabytes of data in an effort to glean historical context for activities running on any managed system.
Beware of retrofitted systems from vendors advertising newer “cloud-enabled” features. Simply put, these “bolt-on” models are unable to match the performance of a cloud-native solution. Buyers run the risk of their security program becoming outdated with tools that cannot scale to meet the growing needs of today’s modern, distributed workforce.
Furthermore, comprehensive visibility into the threat landscape and overall IT hygiene of your enterprise are foundational for efficient security. Implementing cloud-native endpoint detection and response (EDR) capabilities into your security stack that leverages machine learning will deliver visibility and detection for threat protection across the entire kill chain. Additionally, a “hygiene first” approach will help you identify the most critical risk areas early-on in the threat cycle.
CISOs who are successful at reducing or closing the critical skills gap have the highest probability of minimizing the business impact of cyberattacks – even when budgets and staffing are constrained, according to the results of a new SANS Institute survey.
The pandemic brings uncertainty
The survey happened to kick off within days of the World Health Organization declaring COVID-19 a pandemic. As such, the results reflect a high degree of uncertainty around future hiring plans as well as an increase in plans to use outsourced services until staffing plans stabilize.
Even with the future uncertainty brought on by the pandemic, the survey covered staff changes in 2019, qualitative responses on what skills security managers see a need for, which needs they plan on staffing internally, and where they plan on using external service providers.
Closing the skills gap
Other than at very small businesses and in the government vertical, the survey found that turnover and attrition rates for cybersecurity staff is at or below industry averages. Even so, security managers indicated they tend to fall back on attrition as the reason for requesting staff increases, which reflects a lack of meaningful cybersecurity metrics being employed at many organizations.
Security operational skills were cited as most needed by survey respondents, and cloud security skills were more sought after than network or endpoint security skills.
While the most successful source for new cybersecurity employees was the company’s existing internal IT staff, hiring managers indicated they would most like to see new hires with hands-on experience using common cybersecurity products – open-source tools, in particular.
“This skills gap survey once again pointed out that despite all the headlines about a cybersecurity headcount shortage, it is really a skills gap – security people with hands-on experience with the top security tools and how to use them across hybrid cloud/on-premises systems are being hired for the skills, not just to add bodies,” says John Pescatore, SANS Director of Emerging Security Trends. “By investing in training and tools skills as well as the maintenance of those skills, the increased productivity and reduced security staff attrition provides a huge return on investment.”
Working remotely from home has become a reality for millions of people around the world, putting pressure on IT and security teams to ensure that remote employees not only remain as productive as possible, but also that they keep themselves and corporate data as secure as possible.
Achieving a balance between productivity and security is even harder, given that most organizations do not have adequate visibility or control over what their employees are doing on corporate owned smartphones and laptops while outside the office. Even less so in the case of BYOD.
Remote workers attempting to access risky content
NetMotion recently aggregated a sample of anonymized network traffic data, searching specifically for evidence of users attempting to access flagged (or blocked) URLs, otherwise known as risky content. The analysis, which is derived from data gathered between May 30th – June 24th, 2020, revealed that employees clicked on 76,440 links that took them to potentially dangerous websites.
All of these sites were visited on work-assigned devices while using either home or public Wi-Fi or a cellular network connection. The data also revealed several primary risk categories, which were identified using machine learning and based on the reputation scores of over 750 million known domains, more than 4 billion IP addresses and in excess of 32 billion URLs.
The assumption is that a large number of employees connected to protected internal (non-public) networks would have been prevented from accessing this risky content.
- Employees, on average, encounter 8.5 risky URLs per day, or 59 per week
- Remote workers also access around 31 malware sites per month, and 10 phishing domains. That equates to one malware site every day, and one phishing domain every 3 days
- The most common types of high-risk URLs encountered, in order of prevalence, were botnets, malware sites, spam and adware, and phishing and fraud sites
- Over a quarter of the high risk URLs visited by employees were related to botnets
- Almost 1 in 5 risky links led to sites containing spam, adware or malware
- Phishing and fraud, which garner an outsized proportion of news, account for only 4% of the URLs visited
- The ‘other’ category, representing 51% of the data in the chart above, is made up of ‘low-severity’ risky content, such as websites that use proxies, translations and other methods that circumvent URL filtering or monitoring.
2020, a wake-up call for the enterprise and the IT and security teams
IT and security organizations invest heavily to protect their perimeter. Workers located behind desks that are connected to corporate networks are generally safe, secure and productive. They are often unaware that several layers of technology, such as firewalls, are in place to protect them.
With the world continuing to shift to a more mobile and remote environment, 2020 has been a wake-up call for the enterprise and the IT and security teams that support it.
“As this research highlights, remote workers are frequently accessing risky content that would normally be blocked by firewalls and other security tools that monitor internal network traffic. Naturally, this poses an enormous threat to the enterprise,” said Achi Lewis, EMEA Director, NetMotion Software.
“Added to this, many organizations have no visibility into the activity taking place on external networks, let alone any means to prevent it. With such a rapid shift to remote work, enterprise security teams have been left flat-footed, unable to adequately protect users in the face of increasingly sophisticated cyberattacks.”
As a result, security leaders need to look to SDP and other edge-to-edge security technologies that can provide web filtering on any network as they seek to evolve outdated network security strategies.
There’s a massive amount of complexity plaguing today’s enterprise endpoint environments. The number of agents piling up on enterprise endpoint devices – up on average – is hindering IT and security’s ability to maintain foundational security hygiene practices, such as patching critical vulnerabilities, which may actually weaken endpoint security defenses, Absolute reveals.
Also, critical endpoint controls like encryption and antivirus agents, or VPNs, are prone to decay, leaving them unable to protect vulnerable devices, data, and users – with more than one in four enterprise devices found to have at least one of these controls missing or out of compliance.
Increasing security spend does not guarantee security
In addition to heightening risk exposure, the failure of critical endpoint controls to deliver their maximum intended value is also resulting in security investments and, ultimately, wasted endpoint security spend.
According to Gartner, “Boards and senior executives are asking the wrong questions about cybersecurity, leading to poor investment decisions. It is well-known to most executives that cybersecurity is falling short. There is a consistent drumbeat directed at CIOs and CISOs to address the limitations, and this has driven a number of behaviors and investments that will also fall short.”
“What has become clear with the insights uncovered in this year’s report is that simply increasing security spend annually is not guaranteed to make us more secure,” said Christy Wyatt, President and CEO of Absolute.
“It is time for enterprises to increase the rigor around measuring the effectiveness of the investments they’ve made. By incorporating resilience as a key metric for endpoint health, and ensuring they have the ability to view and measure Endpoint Resilience, enterprise leaders can maximize their return on security investments.”
The challenges of maintaining resilience
Without the ability to self-heal, critical controls suffer from fragility and lack of resiliency. Also, endpoint resilience is dependent not just on the health of single endpoint applications, but also combinations of apps.
The massive amount of complexity uncovered means that even the most well-functioning endpoint agents are at risk of collision or failure once deployed across today’s enterprise endpoint environments.
IT and security teams need intelligence into whether individual endpoint controls, as well as various combinations of controls, are functioning effectively and maintaining resilience in their own unique endpoint environment.
Single vendor application pairings not guaranteed to work seamlessly together
In applying the criteria for application resilience to same-vendor pairings of leading endpoint protection and encryption apps, widely varied average health and compliance rates among these pairings were found.
The net-net here is that sourcing multiple endpoint agents from a single vendor does not guarantee that those apps will not ultimately collide or decay when deployed alongside one another.
Progress in Windows 10 migration
Much progress was made in Windows 10 migration, but fragmentation and patching delays leave organizations potentially exposed. Our data showed that while more than 75 percent of endpoints had made the migration to Windows 10 (up from 54 percent last year), the average Windows 10 enterprise device was more than three months behind in applying the latest security patches – perhaps unsurprisingly, as the data also identified more than 400 Windows 10 build releases across enterprise devices.
This delay in patching is especially concerning in light of a recent study that shows 60 percent of data breaches are the result of a known vulnerability with a patch available, but not applied.
Relying on fragile controls and unpatched devices
Fragile controls and unpatched devices are being relied on to protect remote work environments. With the rise of remote work environments in the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak, as of May 2020, one in three enterprise devices is now being used heavily (more than 8 hours per day).
The data also shows a 176 percent increase in the number of enterprise devices with collaboration apps installed as of May 2020, versus pre-COVID-19. This means the average attack surface, and potential vulnerabilities, has expanded significantly across enterprises.
The recent pandemic created a new normal that redefines the way business operates by eliminating security and physical work borders. An Avertium study found that having employees work from home during the pandemic saved U.S. employers more than $30 billion per day.
The study also predicts that 25-30% of the workforce will be working from home for multiple days per week by the end of 2021. For IT Security teams, this poses many new challenges.
“As we move forward with increasingly complex and fragmented business models, it’s crucial to fully assess and protect business assets from new and emerging cybercrimes,” says Paul Caiazzo, senior vice president, security and compliance at Avertium.
“The goal is to prevent a wide array of online threats and attacks, including data breaches, ransomware attacks, identity theft, hacking at home, business, cloud and hybrid cloud locations and online predators. Work with cybersecurity professionals who understand the increased threats in our new, post-COVID world, and can increase security to mitigate risk.”
Organizations losing visibility into their business network traffic
Many organizations’ security monitoring infrastructure is based upon the assumption that most employees are connected directly to the corporate LAN. By collecting data from Active Directory domain controllers, the perimeter firewall, server and workstation event logs, endpoint protection logs and other key on-premises based data sources an organization can maintain a high level of visibility into activity within their network.
But since many employees have moved outside of the network perimeter, whether by using mobile devices or working from a home or remote environment organizations have lost visibility into a large percentage of their business network traffic.
Cybercriminals have pounced on the chance to leverage the resulting distraction for their own gain by turning up the volume of their efforts. Bad actors have recently made news by stealing personal data from unemployment benefit applicants in several states, waging ongoing COVID-19-themed phishing campaigns, and creating a 238% surge in cyberattacks against banks.
With so much at stake, it’s important to establish ways of monitoring telework security in a world with disappearing network perimeters.
Telework redefines the network perimeter
With a fully remote workforce, many organizations have been forced to make choices between usability and security. Existing VPN infrastructure was not designed to support a fully remote workforce.
Adoption of split-tunnel VPNs has been widely recommended as a solution to the VPN scalability problem. However, while allowing Internet-bound traffic to flow directly to its destination, instead of over the corporate VPN, increases usability, it does so at the cost of security and network visibility.
Cybercriminals are capitalizing on this opportunity. The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and the United Kingdom’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) recently issued a joint alert noting an increase in cyberattacks exploiting VPN vulnerabilities.
With unmonitored connections to the public Internet, a remote workforce’s laptops can become compromised by malware or a cybercriminal without detection. These devices can then be used as a stepping stone to access the corporate environment via their VPN connection. For a remote workforce, employee devices and home networks are the new corporate network edge.
Securing the endpoint from the cloud
With the network perimeter shifted to teleworkers’ devices, securing the enterprise requires shifting security to these devices as well. Organizations require at least the same level of visibility into activity as they have on the corporate network.
By deploying agents onto the corporate-owned devices used by teleworkers, an organization can implement endpoint detection and response beyond the confines of the corporate network. This includes the ability to prevent and detect malware, viruses, ransomware, and other threats based upon signature analysis and behavioral analysis of potentially malicious processes.
However, an organization also requires centralized visibility into the devices of their remote workforce. For this purpose, a centrally-managed cloud-based solution is the ideal choice.
By moving security to the cloud, an enterprise reduces load on the corporate network and VPN infrastructure, especially in a split-tunnel connectivity architecture. Cloud-based monitoring and threat management also can achieve a higher level of scalability and performance than an on-premises solution.
A cloud-based zero trust platform can also act as an access broker to resources both on the public internet and the corporate private network.
Zero trust agents installed on telecommuters’ devices can securely and dynamically route all traffic to a cloud-based gateway and then on to the target resource in a way that provides the same or better control and visibility than even a well-configured traditional full tunnel VPN solution. By uniquely identifying the use, device and context, zero trust provides fine-grained precision on access control for the enterprise.
Data from the cloud-based ZTN gateway can additionally be used to perform behavioral analytics within a cloud-based SIEM platform, enhancing security visibility above and beyond traditional networking approaches.
Ensuring employee privacy while monitoring telework security
Monitoring telework security can be a thorny issue for an organization from a privacy and security perspective. On the one side, an organization requires the ability to secure the sensitive data used by employees for daily work in order to meet regulatory requirements. However, deploying network monitoring solutions at employees’ homes presents significant privacy issues.
An agent-based solution, supported by cloud-based infrastructure, provides a workable solution to both issues. For corporate-owned devices, company policy should have an explicit consent to monitor clause, which enables the organization to monitor activity on company devices.
Agents installed on these devices enable an organization to exercise these rights without inappropriately monitoring employee network activity on personal devices connected to the same home network.
Monitoring BYOD security
For personal devices used for remote work under a BYOD policy, the line between privacy and security becomes blurrier. Since devices are owned by the employee, it may seem more difficult to enforce installation of the software agent, and these dual-use devices may cause inadvertent corporate monitoring of personal traffic.
All organizations employing a BYOD model should document in policy the requirements for usage of personally owned devices, including cloud-based anti-malware and endpoint detection and response tools as described earlier.
The most secure way to enable BYOD is a combination of corporately managed cloud-based anti-malware/EDR, supplemented by a ZTN architecture. In such a model, traffic bound for public internet resources can be passed along to the destination without interference, but malicious activity can still be detected and prevented.
Microsoft has added support for Linux and Android to Microsoft Defender ATP, its unified enterprise endpoint security platform.
Microsoft Defender Advanced Threat Protection is designed to help enterprises prevent, detect, investigate, and respond to advanced cyber threats on company endpoints from one central point.
Microsoft Defender ATP for Linux
“Adding Linux into the existing selection of natively supported platforms by Microsoft Defender ATP marks an important moment for all our customers. It makes Microsoft Defender Security Center a truly unified surface for monitoring and managing security of the full spectrum of desktop and server platforms that are common across enterprise environments (Windows, Windows Server, macOS, and Linux),” noted Helen Allas, a principal program manager at Microsoft.
Microsoft Defender ATP for Linux supports the most recent versions of CentOS Linux, Debian, Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) and Ubuntu.
“This initial release delivers strong preventive capabilities, a full command line experience on the client to configure and manage the agent, initiate scans, manage threats, and a familiar integrated experience for machines and alert monitoring in the Microsoft Defender Security Center,” Allas explained.
Microsoft Defender ATP for Linux requires the Microsoft Defender ATP for Servers license and can be deployed and configured using the Puppet or Ansible configuration management tool or the organization’s existing Linux configuration management tool.
Further requirements and info about deployment and use are available here.
Microsoft Defender ATP for Android
Microsoft has also announced on Tuesday the public preview of Defender ATP for Android.
Microsoft Defender ATP for Android will automatically block access to unsafe/phishing websites from SMS/text, WhatsApp, email, browsers, and other apps, as well as block unsafe network connections that apps might make on the user’s behalf.
Users will be informed about it and asked if they want to proceed, report the block, or dismiss the notification.
Microsoft Defender ATP for Android is also capable of detecting malicious apps, potentially unwanted applications and malicious files on the protected device.
“Additional layers of protection against malicious access to sensitive corporate information is offered by integrating with Microsoft Endpoint Manager, which includes both Microsoft Intune and Configuration Manager,” explained Kanishka Srivastava, a senior program manager at Microsoft.
“For example, a compromised device would be blocked from accessing Outlook email. When Microsoft Defender ATP for Android finds that a device has malicious apps installed, it will classify the device as ‘high risk’ and will flag it in the Microsoft Defender Security Center. Microsoft Intune uses the device’s risk level in conjunction with pre-defined compliance polices to activate Conditional Access rules that block access to corporate assets from the high risk device. (…) Once the malicious app is uninstalled, access to corporate assets is restored automatically for the mobile device.”
Enterprise admins will be able to see the alerts, threats and activities in the Microsoft Defender Security Center and make appropriate decisions.
Srivastava added that more capabilities for Android will be rolled our in the coming months and that Microsoft Defender ATP for iOS will be released later this year.
The endpoint security market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.9% from 2020 to reach $18.6 billion by 2027, according to Meticulous Research.
Various factors such as growing e-commerce industry, increasing number of IoT devices, emergence of disruptive digital technologies across the industry verticals, and increasing demand for endpoint security are expected to boost the demand for endpoint security solutions and services across the globe.
However, endpoint security is not considered as comprehensive security measure especially by small and medium scale enterprises. This might restrain the market growth to a certain extent.
Also, some misconceptions and lack of knowledge about endpoint security solution is also posing some serious challenge to the proliferation of endpoint security solutions especially in developing nations.
Endpoint security serves a critical step in securing endpoint devices such as desktops, laptops, and mobile devices among others, that act as point of access to any structured network. Such endpoints can be vulnerable to malicious attacks.
Endpoint security has gained a greater importance over the years and has become a common part of individuals’ life those are associated with a computer or smartphone and smart devices.
Benefits of endpoint security technologies
Endpoint security technologies are packed with several benefits such as protection for vulnerable services; provide network security for internet, cloud security, and enhanced data privacy & policy enforcement. Endpoint security against online threats holds a greater significance in today’s digital changing landscape.
Increasing adoption of cloud computing, and IoT among others have changed the scenario of modern-day business needs by promoting maximum agility to achieve competitiveness. Due to this, the overall concerns associated with cyber-attacks, data breaches, and data thefts among others have also increased significantly in past few years.
Hence, endpoint security emerged as quintessential tool for organizations to minimize the problems associated with data security. In order to protect endpoint devices and information from security breaches and cyber -attacks, the implementation of endpoint security solutions is increasing across various business verticals, which is ultimately driving the growth of endpoint security.
The global endpoint security market is segmented
In 2020, the endpoint security solutions market segment is estimated to dominate the overall endpoint security market. The growing adoption of advanced technologies, such as IoT solutions, endpoint devices, and AI/ML solutions are driving the need for endpoint security solutions, in turn supporting the market growth.
Considering the rapid deployment of variety of connected devices across different business sectors, the demand for endpoint security solutions is expected grow to over the coming years as well, thereby registering the fastest growth in the endpoint security solutions segment throughout the forecast period.
Based on deployment type, the overall endpoint security market is mainly segmented into on-premises deployments and cloud deployments. On-premise solutions commanded a majority share of the endpoint security market, mainly due to greater control over security infrastructure offered by such solutions.
However, with growing deployments, particularly in small and medium scale industries, the cloud deployments market is expected grow at the fastest CAGR during the forecast period of 2020 to 2027. The benefits of flexibility, agility, and scalability offered by cloud-based security solutions is one of the key factors driving the growth in this market segment.
On the basis of industry size, the overall endpoint security market is segmented into small & medium size enterprises and large enterprises. The large enterprises segment is estimated to command the largest share of the overall endpoint security market in 2020.
However, with increasing deployment of IoT-enabled solutions, the small and medium scale enterprises segment is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR throughout the forecast period.
Based on the enforcement point, endpoint security is segmented into mobile devices, workstation, server, point of sale terminals, and others. The mobile devices segment is estimated to command the largest share of the overall endpoint security market in 2020.
Directly after the WHO declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, an estimated 16 million US employees were sent home and instructed to work remotely, while governments around the world implemented widespread school closures impacting over 90 percent of the world’s student population, Absolute reveals.
This result placed IT and security teams under immediate pressure to quickly stand up work-from-home or learn-from-home environments to ensure continued productivity, connectivity, and security.
“COVID-19 marks the beginning of a new era where we believe the nature of work will be forever changed,” said Christy Wyatt, President and CEO of Absolute.
“As this crisis took hold, we saw our customers mobilize quickly to get devices into the hands of students and employees and navigate the challenges of standing up remote work and distance learning programs. What has become resoundingly clear is there has never been a more critical time for having undeletable endpoint resilience.”
Sensitive data is building up on enterprise devices
There has been a 46 percent increase in the number of items of sensitive data – such as Personally Identifiable Information (PII) and Protected Health Information (PHI) – identified on enterprise endpoints, compared to pre-COVID-19. Compounded by the pre-existing gaps in endpoint security and health, this means enterprise organizations are at heightened risk.
Enterprises at heightened risk of data breaches or compliance violations
On average, one in four enterprise endpoint devices have a critical security application (anti-malware, encryption, VPN, or client management) that is missing, inactive or out-of-date.
With the significant increases in sensitive data being stored on enterprise endpoint devices, enterprises are putting themselves at risk of legal compliance violations and data breaches as COVID-19 cyber attacks accelerate.
Employee and student device usage continues to rise post-pandemic
The data shows a nearly 50 percent increase in the amount of heavy device usage – 8+ hours per day – across enterprise organizations, jumping to an increase of 62 percent in heavy education device usage. The average number of hours education endpoint devices are being used daily is also up 27 percent.
Patch management plaguing both enterprise and education IT teams
Device health sees slight improvement, but patch management continues to plague both enterprise and education IT teams. The average enterprise endpoint device running Windows 10 continues to be nearly 3 months behind in applying the latest patch, with that delay spiking to more than 180 days since a patch has been applied to the average student Windows 10 device – leaving students and employees vulnerable.
57 percent of UK IT decision makers still believe that remote workers are a security risk, and that they will expose their organization to the threat of a data breach, according to a survey by Apricorn.
This figure has inclined steadily from 44 percent in 2018 and 50 percent in 2019. The rise could reflect a corresponding increase in the number of remote workers, or an enhanced awareness of the risks of doing so as the UK’s workforce began to follow government guidelines to work from home.
In 2019, 47 percent admitted that their remote workers had already knowingly put corporate data at risk of a breach in the last year; this has now dropped slightly to 44 percent.
Remote workers security risk: Apathy still a major problem
Apathy continues to be a major problem, with 34 percent of IT leaders saying their remote workers simply don’t care about security – exactly the same percentage as last year – which suggests organizations are struggling to get employees to buy into the security strategy.
“This year, the need for organizations to facilitate effective and secure remote working has been cast into the spotlight to an extent no-one could have anticipated,” said Jon Fielding, Managing Director EMEA, Apricorn.
“Our survey shows that while progress has been made in some key areas since 2019, some of the same risks – such as employee apathy or error – remain a problem. In these currently challenging times, when UK workers are being urged to work from home, it’s all the more important that security is a priority for everyone.”
The importance of endpoint control
Organizations have increasingly recognized the importance of endpoint control as remote working has become more prevalent. Nearly all (96 percent) mitigate the risks of BYOD (bring your own device) with a security strategy that covers employees’ use of their own IT equipment out of the office. Of those, 42 percent only allow the use of devices that have been provisioned or approved by IT, and enforce this with strict security measures. This is a significant rise on 2019, when just over 1 in 10 (11 percent) did so.
“Strengthening endpoint controls allows organizations to trust in the integrity of their data and systems wherever the employee is accessing them, and whatever device they’re using. The fact that businesses are recognizing and enforcing this is a positive step,” comments Fielding.
This change is crucial given that lost or misplaced devices is now the second biggest cause of a data breach – cited by almost a quarter of respondents (24 percent), up from 17 percent a year ago. Employees unintentionally putting data at risk remains the leading cause (33 percent), with third parties mishandling corporate information cited as one of the main causes by 23 percent.
Mobile working and GDPR compliance
Despite this, 87 percent of UK IT decision makers agree that their organizations’ remote workers are aware of cybersecurity risks and practices, and follow required policies at all times.
“Remote working is not a new concept, but with so many employees now having had a taste for home working, it might be hard for businesses to put that particular lid back on – so they need to figure out where their vulnerabilities lie now, and address them,” adds Fielding.
When it comes to the challenges of implementing a cybersecurity plan for remote working, almost a fifth of IT decision makers (19 per cent) say managing all the technology employees need is the biggest problem, a drop from 30 percent in 2019, which suggests that organizations are getting a handle on the complexity involved in the technology aspect.
In addition, fewer IT leaders believe that difficulties with GDPR compliance is the biggest problem with mobile working: 16 percent agreed, compared with 20 percent in 2019, suggesting that this aspect may have been less of a challenge than they originally anticipated.