What is the threat?
An ATM cash-out attack is an elaborate and choreographed attack in which criminals breach a bank or payment card processor and manipulate fraud detection controls as well as alter customer accounts so there are no limits to withdraw money from numerous ATMs in a short period of time.
Criminals often manipulate balances and withdrawal limits to allow ATM withdrawals until ATM machines are empty of cash.
How do ATM cash-out attacks work?
An ATM cash-out attack requires careful planning and execution. Often, the criminal enterprise gains remote access to a card management system to alter the fraud prevention controls such as withdrawal limits or PIN number of compromised cardholder accounts. This is commonly done by inserting malware via phishing or social engineering methods into a financial institution or payment processor’s systems.
The criminal enterprise then can create new accounts or use compromised existing accounts and/or distribute compromised debit/credit cards to a group of people who make withdrawals at ATMs in a coordinated manner.
With control of the card management system, criminals can manipulate balances and withdrawal limits to allow ATM withdrawals until ATM machines are empty of cash.
These attacks usually do not exploit vulnerabilities in the ATM itself. The ATM is used to withdraw cash after vulnerabilities in the card issuers authorization system have been exploited.
Who is most at risk?
Financial institutions, and payment processors are most at financial risk and likely to be the target of these large-scale, coordinated attacks. These institutions stand to potentially lose millions of dollars in a very short time period and can have exposure in multiple regions around the world as the result of this highly organized, well-orchestrated criminal attack.
What are some detection best practices?
- Velocity monitoring of underlying accounts and volume
- 24/7 monitoring capabilities including File Integrity Monitoring Systems (FIMs)
- Reporting system that sounds the alarm immediately when suspicious activity is identified
- Development and practice of an incident response management system
- Check for unexpected traffic sources (e.g. IP addresses)
- Look for unauthorized execution of network tools.
What are some prevention best practices?
- Strong access controls to your systems and identification of third-party risks
- Employee monitoring systems to guard against an “inside job”
- Continuous phishing training for employees
- Multi-factor authentication
- Strong password management
- Require layers of authentication/approval for remote changes to account balances and transaction limits
- Implementation of required security patches in a timely manner (ASAP)
- Regular penetration testing
- Frequent reviews of access control mechanisms and access privileges
- Strict separation of roles that have privileged access to ensure no one user ID can perform sensitive functions
- Installation of file integrity monitoring software that can also serve as a detection mechanism
- Strict adherence to the entire PCI DSS.
Global organizations continue to put their customers’ cardholder data at risk due to a lack of long term payment security strategy and execution, flags the Verizon report.
With many companies struggling to retain qualified CISOs or security managers, the lack of long-term security thinking is severely impacting sustained compliance within the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS).
Cybercriminals still mostly targeting payment data
Payment data remains one of the most sought after and lucrative targets by cybercriminals with 9 out of 10 data breaches being financially motivated, as highlighted by the report. Within the retail sector alone, 99 percent of security incidents were focused on acquiring payment data for criminal use.
On average only 27.9 percent of global organizations maintained full compliance with the PCI DSS, which was developed to help businesses that offer card payment facilities protect their payment systems from breaches and theft of cardholder data.
More concerning, this is the third successive year that a decline in compliance has occurred with a 27.5 percentage point drop since compliance peaked in 2016.
“Unfortunately we see many businesses lacking the resources and commitment from senior business leaders to support long-term data security and compliance initiatives. This is unacceptable,” said Sampath Sowmyanarayan, President, Global Enterprise, Verizon Business.
“The recent coronavirus pandemic has driven consumers away from the traditional use of cash to contactless methods of payment with payment cards as well as mobile devices. This has generated more electronic payment data and consumers trust businesses to safeguard their information.
“Payment security has to be seen as an on-going business priority by all companies that handle any payment data, they have a fundamental responsibility to their customers, suppliers and consumers.”
Few organizations successfully test security systems
Additional findings shine a spotlight on security testing where only 51.9 percent of organizations successfully test security systems and processes as well as unmonitored system access and where approximately two-thirds of all businesses track and monitor access to business critical systems adequately.
In addition, only 70.6 percent of financial institutions maintain essential perimeter security controls.
“This report is a welcome wake-up call to organizations that strong leadership is required to address failures to adequately manage payment security. The Verizon Business report aligns well with Omdia’s view that the alignment of security strategy with organizational strategy is essential for organizations to maintain compliance, in this case with PCI DSS 3.2.1 to provide appropriate levels of payment security.
“It makes clear that long-term data security and compliance combines the responsibilities of a number of roles, including the Chief Information Security Officer, the Chief Risk Officer, and Chief Compliance Officer, which Omdia concurs with,” comments Maxine Holt, senior research director at Omdia.
Difficulty to maintain PCI DSS compliance impacts all businesses
SMBs were flagged as having their own unique struggles with securing payment data. While smaller businesses generally have less card data to process and store than larger businesses, they have fewer resources and smaller budgets for security, impacting the resources available to maintain compliance with PCI DSS.
Often the measures needed to protect sensitive payment card data are perceived as too time-consuming and costly by these smaller organizations, but as the likelihood of a data breach for SMBs remains high it is imperative that PCI DSS compliance is maintained.
The on-going CISO challenge: Security strategy and compliance
The report also explores the challenges CISOs face in designing, implementing and maintaining an effective and sustainable security strategy, and how these can ultimately contribute to the breakdown of compliance and data security management.
These problems were not found to be technological in nature, but as a result of organizational weaknesses which could be resolved by more mature management skills including creating formalized processes; building a business model for security as well as defining a sound security strategy with operating models and frameworks.
The PCI Security Standards Council has updated the standard for payment devices to enable stronger protections for cardholder data.
Meeting the accelerating changes of payment device technology
The PCI PIN Transaction Security (PTS) Point-of-Interaction (POI) Modular Security Requirements 6.0 enhances security controls to defend against physical tampering and the insertion of malware that can compromise card data during payment transactions.
Updates are designed to meet the accelerating changes of payment device technology, while providing protections against criminals who continue to develop new ways to steal payment card data.
“Payment technology is advancing at a rapid pace,” says Emma Sutcliffe, SVP, Standards Officer at PCI SSC. “The changes to this standard will facilitate design flexibility for payment devices while advancing the standard to help mitigate the evolving threat environment.”
Established to protect PINs and the cardholder data stored on the card (on magnetic stripe or the chip of an EMV card) or used in conjunction with a mobile device, PTS POI Version 6.0 reorganizes the requirements and introduces changes that include:
- Restructuring modules into Physical and Logical, Integration, Communications and Interfaces, and Life Cycle to reflect the diversity of devices supported under the standard and the application of requirements based upon their individual characteristics and functionalities.
- Limiting firmware approval timeframes to three years to help ensure ongoing protection against evolving vulnerabilities.
- Requiring devices that accept EMV enabled cards to support Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) to help facilitate the EMV migration to a more robust level of cryptography.
- Enhancing support for the acceptance of magnetic stripe cards in mobile payments using solutions that follow the Software-Based PIN Entry on COTS (SPoC) Standard.
“Feedback from our global stakeholders, along with changes in payments, technology and security is driving the changes to this standard,” said Troy Leach, SVP at PCI SSC. “It’s with participation from the payments industry that the Council is able to produce standards that are relevant and enhance global payment card security.”
The PCI Security Standards Council (PCI SSC) has updated the PCI Point-to-Point Encryption Standard (P2PE) and supporting program. PCI P2PE Version 3.0 simplifies the process for component and solution providers to validate their P2PE products for cardholder data protection efforts.
Example P2PE implementation at a glance
“The Council is committed to evolving its standards, programs and resources to help the industry innovate for payment acceptance in a secure manner,” said PCI SSC Senior Vice President Troy Leach.
“It’s important to note that P2PE technology that protects payment data isn’t changing. The changes focus instead on providing the opportunity for new approaches in meeting the standard and will ultimately result in more PCI P2PE Solutions available for merchants to use in protecting payment data and simplifying their PCI DSS efforts.”
For more information on what merchants need to know about PCI P2PE v3.0, read PCI Perspectives blog post: P2PE v3.0: What Merchants Need to Know.
PCI Point-to-Point Encryption Standard 3.0
PCI P2PE 3.0 maintains the same approach to security as version 2.0, with only minor changes to the security requirements. Key updates focus on updating the validation program to add flexibility for P2PE solution providers designing and validating their solutions to the standard. These include:
- Enhancing the modular approach first introduced in P2PE v2.0 by introducing four additional component provider types
- Streamlining the processes used by P2PE Assessors when validating P2PE Solutions, Components and Applications
“Driven by industry feedback given during an extensive request for comments (RFC) process, the program changes in version 3.0 will streamline the assessment process and provide more flexibility for component and solution providers,” said PCI SSC Vice President, Global Head of Programs Gill Woodcock.
Merchants considering a PCI P2PE Solution are encouraged to use the current list of PCI P2PE Solutions on the PCI SSC website and do not need to wait for a P2PE v3.0 validation solution, as solutions validated against v2.0 provide the same level of security assurance.
The PCI Security Standards Council (PCI SSC) published a new data security standard for solutions that enable merchants to accept contactless payments using a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile device with near-field communication (NFC).
PCI CPoC Standard
Using the PCI Contactless Payments on COTS (CPoC) Standard and supporting validation program, vendors can provide merchants with contactless acceptance solutions that have been developed and lab-tested to protect payment data.
“The PCI CPoC Standard is the second standard released by the Council to address mobile contactless acceptance. Specifically, the PCI CPoC Standard provides security and test requirements for solutions that enable contactless payment acceptance on a merchant COTS device using an embedded NFC reader,” said PCI SSC Standards Officer Emma Sutcliffe.
“Contactless, or tap and go, payment adoption is on the rise globally, and merchants want affordable, flexible and safe options for contactless payment acceptance that allow them to best serve their customers. In addition to PCI Software-based PIN Entry on COTS (SPoC) Solutions that enable contactless payment acceptance with a dongle attached to the mobile COTS device, the PCI CPoC Standard and Program now provide merchants the option to use validated solutions that require no additional hardware to accept contactless transactions,” said PCI SSC Senior VP Troy Leach.
Standard security requirements
The PCI CPoC Standard includes security requirements for vendors on how to protect payment data in CPoC Solutions and test requirements for laboratories (labs) to evaluate these solutions through the supporting validation program.
The central elements
The primary elements of a CPoC Solution include: a COTS device with an embedded NFC interface to read the payment card or payment device; a validated payment acceptance software application that runs on the merchant COTS device initiating a contactless transaction; and back-end systems that are independent from the COTS device and support monitoring, integrity checks and payment processing. Software-based PIN entry is not permitted in a CPoC Solution.
Through a combination of the security controls built into the merchant application and ongoing monitoring and integrity checks performed by the back-end systems, merchants and consumers can have confidence in the security of the CPoC Solution and the contactless transaction.